The delta works are a huge project, started in response to the flood of 1953. It was declared finished several times, but opened again due to the increasing sea level. Now a new committee works on this problem.

This module examines the technological and scientific challenges that existed (and will exist). Many questions will be addressed: How was the project organized? How was the project funded? What is important in a flood plan? What are the problems that are expected by rising sea level? Which scenarios play a role in political decision?

General information

This course will take place in the fourth quartile of your first year. It will be given by Maarten Krol and Arjen Hoekstra.


Maarten Krol

Maarten Krol is researcher and lecturer at the research group of Water Engineering & Management at the University of Twente. His interests are water availability and the vulnerability of water ecosystems in North-East Brazil (WAVES), and the global changes in the hydrological cycle of the Elbe delta. Besides, he also studies the impact of climate change on the use of knowledge during decision-making. In 1985, he obtained his degree to teach mathematics to higher second degree pupils at the University of Utrecht, and in the same year obtained his masters in Applied Mathematics at the same university. In 1990, also in Utrecht, he finished his research in Applied Mathematics with the title of ‘The Method of Practical Averaging in Partial Differential Equations.’



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Arjen Hoekstra

Arjen Hoekstra (1967) is professor Multidisciplinary Water Management and scientific director of the Water Footprint Network. He started his career at the Technical University of Delft, where he obtained his MSc, cum laude, in Civil Engineering, and a PhD in Policy Analysis. During the course of his career, he visited over fifty countries and has worked in different academic environments, giving him a large and diverse network across the globe. Now, he partakes in a variety of interdisciplinary research projects, which focus on economy, anthropology, political sciences, civil engineering, and the environment.

He thought up the Water Footprint Concept in 2002, and established an interdisciplinary field of Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade Analysis, which studies the field between water management, consumption, and trade. In this role, he was also the joint founder of the Water Footprint Network in 2008.

He teaches courses on a variety of topics, among which are water resources management, river basin and coastal zone management, hydrology and water quality, sustainable development, natural resources valuation, environmental systems analysis, and policy analysis. He devised a different number of educational tools, such as the River Basin Game and the Globalization of Water Role Play. His scientific publications cover a large field of topics related to water management and contain a large amount of peer-reviewed articles and chapters. He has also published a number of books, among which are Perspectives on Water (International Books, 1998), Globalization of Water (Wiley-Blackwell, 2008) and The Water Footprint Assessment Manual (Earthscan, 2011).



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