Electromagnetic Interference on Static Energy Meters Due to Residential Emissions
Bas ten Have is a PhD student in the research group Power Electronics. Supervisors are prof.dr.ir. F.B.J. Leferink and co-supervisor is dr.ir. D.J.G. Moonen from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science.
Nowadays, as part of the energy transition electricity is used more efficient and sustainable. Either by developing sustainable alternatives for other domains, such as photovoltaic installations and electric cars. Or by making equipment more efficient, for example by energy efficient lighting equipment. This will increase the energy usage, but moreover the connected loads in an electricity grid change from conventional linear towards non-linear time-variant loads. This has resulted in many conducted electromagnetic interference problems, especially in the frequency range from dc till 150 kHz.
Of which the interference on static energy meters is an impactful case as it results in too high or too low energy bills for consumers. Therefore, this thesis aims to get a better understanding of the underlying problem by investigating the interfering cases and determining the extent of the problem. This is done by reviewing the electromagnetic compatibility standards for static energy meters. After which, the immunity of static energy meters is investigated in the lab by using various non-linear equipment. Then, measurement probes are characterized for an accurate capture of (on-site) pulsed currents. Next, the critical parameters that interfere with static energy meters are identified. And finally, the extent of the metering problem is investigated by capturing on-site current waveforms from individual equipment and of the complete system at the meter connection point. From which it is concluded that the electromagnetic interference on static energy meters is due to non-linear pulsed currents. Which have a high crest factor, narrow pulse width, high peak amplitude, low charge, and high slopes. Moreover, in the on-site many similar waveforms were found. In contrast, the test standards only cover frequency domain test methods, which are thus not representative for the interference waveforms.