Thermal conversion processes include combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, torrefaction and hydrothermal conversion. In our research we investigate sustainable routes and technologies to convert biomass into energy and fuels. Another focus is on the valorization of waste streams into both fuels and raw materials. An example is the production of oil and minerals via the pyrolysis of paper sludge. Future fuels can be derived from solar and wind energy. For hydrocarbon fuels we need a sustainable carbon source and a challenging option is to capture CO2 from ambient air.