2. Agree

12. Planning approach.doc

Tool #12: Five-phase model to define the proper IS planning approach.

An overview of the five-phase model as adjusted by M.T. Smits and K.G. van der Poel.


This model defines the state of the Information Strategy of the organization. It can be seen as a continuous lifecycle of the Information Strategy of an organization, where each phase requires a different strategic approach.

This tool is developed to determine the current state of the organizational IT Strategy planning approach, which makes it possible to align the IS planning approach to the current state of the organization. This is important because when an IS Strategy is created without proper alignment the organization is likely to fail.


The five phases identified by M.T. Smits and K.G. van der Poel (1996) are:


Turbulence: A specific event arouses strategic interest in IT. Experimentation with new strategies.

Orientation: A new analysis of environment had been made, new goals are formulated and new methods of strategizing are tried.

Consolidation: Formed strategy gets approval of senior management and the new strategy is being laid out through the organization.

Exploration: Organization gets used to new strategy, and efficiency comes into focus; optimizing the procedures.

Tension: Shortcomings and missed opportunities arise and existing structure becomes inadequate.

These phases are identified by considering four “situational influences”. These can be seen as four different aspects which are interlinked as shown in the figure on the next page.

The four influences are:

1.IS Environment, where an analysis is made of the internal and external environment of the Information System.

2.Process, three types are distinguished: Mechanistic, Political and Problem Driven

3.IS Form and Plans, here is looked at the architecture and the layout of the IS

4.Effects, these are divided in intended and unintended effects of the Information Planning Strategy


SI


Because of this linkage, organizations tend to move through the phases as the effects of the previous phase initiates the beginning of the next phase whilst the internal environment is changed.

To link the five phases to the four situational influences an overview is made of how the influences characterise each phase:



Organizational phase

Information Strategy

Turbulence

Orientation

Consolidation

Exploitation

Tension

Environment

Shock

IT competencies

IT awareness

Process

Process Type


Methods/tools

Top management

Form and content

Objectives

Architectures

Plans

Effects

Project level

Bottom line


Current

Seeking

Very High


Political /

Problem driven

No

Very active


Focus

-

Tentative


Yes

No


Recent

Expanding

High


Political /

Mechanistic

Yes

Active


Established

Experimental

Flexible


Yes

No


-

Expanding

High


Mechanistic


Yes

Supportive


-

Focus

Firm


Yes

-


-

Stable

Low


Mechanistic


Customized

Low


-

Stable

Firm


-

Possibly


Imminent

-

-


Problem driven

No

Growing


-

Outdated

-


-

-


When the current phase of the organization is identified one should align the approach for Information System planning with the correct phase.


By Sjoerd Borrius (S0141089)