Small Scale Thermoacoustic Energy Conversion: Turning Heat into Electricity

DURATION

Start

: 01-07-2011

End

: 01-07-2015

 

PARTNERS

nefit_logo

 

STAFF

ir. Anne de Jong (J.A.)

dr.ir. Ysbrand Wijnant (Y.H.)

prof.dr.ir. André de Boer (A.)

 

DESCRIPTION

Acoustic waves can be used to transport energy. The interaction between thermodynamics and acoustics is called thermoacoustics. Thermoacoustic phenomena can be used to perform a thermodynamic cycle. This way, heat can be converted to work, as done in an engine, or work can be used to pump heat, as done in a refrigerator. This study is about thermoacoustic power generation, which means making acoustic power from heat, and generating electricity from acoustic power.

Working

In a regenerator (figure 1), a temperature gradient is imposed on a compressible fluid. If the pressure and velocity of a plane wave are nearly in phase at the cold side of the regenerator inlet, the acoustic medium performs the Stirling cycle in the regenerator. As a result, the acoustic wave is amplified.

regenerator

Figure 1: Schematic picture of a regenerator

The energy of the amplified wave is harvested in a linear alternator (figure 2), which converts acoustic energy to electric energy.

Advantages

Theoretically, high efficiencies are achievable, due to the inherent reversibility of the Stirling cycle. The number of moving parts is limited to one (the linear alternator). Therefore the cost of this engine type is low compared to other common power technologies (i.e. the internal combustion engine, or the free piston stirling engine).

linear_alternator

Figure 2: Schematic picture of a linear alternator

Research outlook

The research will focus on models to estimate the performance of thermoacoustic stirling engines for small scale power generation of 1 kWe). Specifically, we will look at sources of power loss in a thermoacoustic engine, such as:

Viscothermal losses in all parts of the engine

·

Turbulent dissipation (vortex shedding)

·

Acoustic mass streaming (Rayleigh, Gedeon)

·

Heat conduction losses

·

Frictional and electrical losses in the linear alternator

Design tools will be developed for the different design stadia, from simple lumped acoustic network diagrams (figure 3), to viscothermal acoustic finite element models to accurately predict the engine performance.

electrical_analogy

Figure 3: Lumped acoustic network model of the traveling wave thermoacoustic engine