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Applied Thermal Sciences

The group focuses on studying heat and mass transfer phenomena at cryogenic temperatures to explore fundamentals and applications of thermal sciences in space and time domains.

Cooling using cryogenic small molecules, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and argon is an emerging essential process in life sciences and process industry. To name a few; tissue fixation for molecular medicine, vitrification of biological samples, deep frozen material transportation, pharmaceutical processing, cryo-tooling and quenching. Current heat transfer correlations based on physical models are developed for room temperature heat transfer fluids such as water or refrigerants. Applying these correlations to model systems with cryogenic molecules will result in a significant error.

An important distinction is the type of cooling processes encountered in the literature, which is illustrated in the cartoon for a liquid-vapor phase transition or boiling. Most of the studies are focused on the fundamentals of bubble formation and the subsequent fluid mechanics and heat transfer in the so-called nucleate regime i.e. when the object is already cold and cooling by the fluid is to maintain the objects temperature, which I like to call - steady state. Our interest is to investigate the mechanisms that play a role during the cooling of an object say from room temperature to a cryogenic temperature - the transient state. Very little physical model based correlations exists for cryogenic fluids under transient quenching conditions.

We adopt both experimental and numerical approach to systematically understand these cooling processes.

Contact srinivas vanapalli

dr. S. Vanapalli (Srinivas)
Associate Professor