Sustainable Resources

DPM has a strong track record in Sustainable Resources in particular in the fields of energy, product design and materials. The group of researchers involved in this field is called DPM’s Sustainable Resources Team and consists of (in alphabetical order) Wouter Eggink, Carsten Gelhard, Jörg Hensler, Roland ten Klooster, Jos de Lange, Angèle Reinders, Marten Toxopeus, Wessel Wits.

Sustainable Resources is one of the five core themes at the Faculty of Engineering Technology for research and education. In this scope the important resources for a sustainable future are energy, water and materials. The theme Sustainable Resources is connected to the ongoing national developments to realize the Circular Economy (CE) which has an interdisciplinary character indicated by four directions of these developments regarding (1) Value Chains and Networks, (2) Users and Society, (3) Governance and Transitions and (4) Technologies and Systems.  The following scheme provides an overview of the relations between the 5 research themes of the Faculty of ET, more specifically the theme Sustainable Resources and the connection with the grand theme Circular Economy.


Research and Education for Sustainable Resources at DPM

DPM has a strong track record in Sustainable Resources in particular in the fields of energy, product design and materials. DPM Sustainable Resources Team is specialized in evaluating and developing technology and simultaneously looking for integrated engineering solutions in the form of components, products or systems by design-driven research. In this design-driven research processes related to Product and System Development and Product Life Cycles are considered to be the main framework.

In the framework of Product Life Cycles, Technologies originating from Raw Materials are Manufactured into products that are Packaged and Distributed for Marketing and Purchase by end-users and other stakeholders. During the Use phase of these products, Interaction takes place. Moreover, Maintenance will be required until the end-of-life after which Disposal or Recycling of materials will happen. In that sense, the cycle can be fully closed or partially open, leading to emissions, waste and other impacts. Naturally inputs of energy, water and materials to this cycle and the aim to reduce these inputs are vital to the Sustainable Resources.

In the context of Product and System Development the following five aspects that are considered relevant for successful product development are also considered relevant for sustainable products, namely Technologies, Financial aspects, Form giving, User aspects and Societal and Environmental aspects. Each of these five aspects contributes in a significant way to the final product and has to be taken into account during the development process.

By placing product and system development in the context of Product Life Cycles a new context is created that covers the research and educational activities of DPM in the field of Sustainable Resources: Sustainable Resources at DPM focuses on evaluating and creating more sustainable life cycles of products, by sustainable packaging and distribution, marketing, use and interaction and designs of products in the context of sustainable energy, energy-efficiency and sustainable materials.

DPM has initiated collaboration in the Faculty of ET and at University of Twente around the themes sustainability and energy by the creation of a knowledge platform for advanced research on innovations in sustainability and energy, called ARISE. Also DPM has strong connections with Circles, the circular network in Eastern Netherlands, with the National Science Agenda regarding Route 12 on Circular Economy and Material Efficiency, and the Knowledge Institute Sustainable Packaging.

Ongoing Present Research Projects and Education for Sustainable Resources

In this section ongoing present research projects and educational activities are presented.

Research Projects

Designing new business models for a circular economy, Joint research project with KIDV (Dutch Institute for Sustainable Packaging) and TIFN (Top Institute Food & Nutrition), coordinated by UT (Carsten Gelhard and Jörg Henseler, 11/2016 – 03/2018)

Packaging chains in lasting balance. Subject: Optimisation of sustainable development in the packaging life cycle. Consortium: Ardagh, Heinz, Bio+, NVC, Tata, Rexam, Paardekooper Description: Developing specifications for sustainable development in the entire packaging life cycle and convert these specifications into tools for improvements that do more justice to the definition of sustainable development and help organisations from the field of packaging in developing chainoriented solutions. Team: Roland ten Klooster, Eric Lutters, Ellen Oude Luttikhuis, Jos de Lange (Dates?)

CESEPS “Co-Evolution of Smart Energy Products and Services”, ERA-Net Plus Smart Grids project in collaboration with UT, TUD, Wageningen University, Utrecht University, DNV GL, eseia, TU Graz and Austrian Institute of Technology, coordinated by UT (Angele Reinders, 02/2016 – 01/2019)

Distributed solar photovoltaic systems for electricity system resilience in Indonesia, LPDP funded PhD project, Kunaifi with supervision by Angele Reinders (2016-2020)

Smart grids design, UCF funded PhD Project, Uche Obinna with supervison by Angele Reinders (Expected end date: 2017)

Living Smart Campus project; Solar Powered E-bikes, Angele Reinders with Karst Geurs (2017)

Towards freeform wicks for phase-transitional heat exchangers, SBE-Institute of Engineering (Wessel Wits, Davoud Jafari (PostDoc), 2017-2018)

Heat transfer for different working fluids in modern Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) systems, collaboration with Netherlands Aerospace Laboratory (Wessel Wits, 2016-2017)

Thermal management of high-flux planar structures through heat pipe technology, collaboration with Thales Nederland B.V. (Wessel Wits, 2016-ongoing)

Back to the Sustainable Future, visions of Sustainability in the History of Design ; research in sustainability issues from a Design History perspective. Collaboration with Universities of Oslo and Umeå (Wouter Eggink)

Design & Styling of sustainable technology; research in design issues of innovative sustainable technologies and the (influence of styling cues on the) success factors for diffusion. Several Master assignments and collaboration within the master course Sources of Innovation (Wouter Eggink)


Master Course on Designing Business Models: This course is planned to also be offered to master students of SET. If this should be the case, one unit of the course could specifically address the question “How to Design Sustainable Business Models”.

Life-cycle Strategy, master’s program of Industrial Design Engineering (Marten Toxopeus)

Product Life Cycle, master’s program of Industrial Design Engineering (Marten Toxopeus)

Sources of Innovation, master’s program of Industrial Design Engineering (Angele Reinders)

Solar Energy, master’s program of Sustainable Energy Technology (Angele Reinders)


Koeijer, Bjorn de; Wever, Renee; Henseler, Jörg (forthcoming). Realising product-packaging combinations in circular systems: Shaping the research agenda. Packaging Technology and Science, electronic pre-print available, doi:10.1002/pts.2219.

Marijn P. Zwier, Henk Jan van Gerner and Wessel W. Wits, Modelling and experimental investigation of a thermally driven self-oscillating pump, Applied Thermal Engineering, 2017, ISSN 1359-4311,

Wessel W. Wits and Tom H.J. Vaneker, Integrated design and manufacturing of flat miniature heat pipes using printed circuit board technology, IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies 33(2):398-408, 2010.

Wessel W. Wits and Jim B.W. Kok, Modeling and validating the transient behavior of flat miniature heat pipes manufactured in multilayer printed circuit board technology, Journal of Heat Transfer 133(8):081401, 2011.

Wessel W. Wits, Johannes van Es and Gert Jan te Riele, Automated charging of embedded heat pipe systems, Heat Pipe Science and Technology, An International Journal 3(2-4):233-245, 2012.

Planar heat pipe for cooling, Patent no. WO2007096313 (A1), Inventors: Wessel W. Wits, Jan H. Mannak & Rob Legtenberg, Priority date: 22 February 2006.

System for fast and accurate filling of a two-phase cooling device, notably a heat pipe, adapted for use in an automated process, Patent no. WO2013057025 (A1), Inventors: Wessel W. Wits, Harm Jan ten Hoeve, Gert Jan te Riele & Johannes van Es, Priority date: 21 October 2011.

Gelhard, C., & von Delft, S. (2016) The Role of Organizational Capabilities in Achieving Superior

Sustainability Performance, Journal of Business Research 69(10), 4632-4642

Ajamieh, A., Benitez, J., Braojos, J., & Gelhard, C. (2016) IT Infrastructure Versus Competitive Aggressiveness in Predicting Green-Based Value Creation, Journal of Business Research 69(10), 4667-4674

Gelhard, C. von Delft, S., Leker, J. Work Together or Perish Alone: The Role of Supply Chain Collaboration Capabilities in Open Sustainability, under review at Industrial Marketing Management

Obinna, U., Joore, P., Wauben, L. and Reinders, A.H.M.E.,  Comparison of two residential Smart Grid pilots in the Netherlands and in the USA, focusing on energy performance and user experiences, Applied Energy, Vol. 191, pp 264–275, 2017.

Entrop, A.G., Halman, J.I.M., Dewulf, G.P.M.R. and Reinders, A.H.M.E., Assessing the implementation potential of PCMs: The situation for residential buildings in the Netherlands, Energy Procedia, Vol. 96, pp 17–32, 2016.

Apostolou, G. and Reinders, A.H.M.E., Comparison of the indoor performance of 12 commercial PV products by a simple model, Energy Science & Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 1,  pp 69–85, 2016.

Obinna, U., Joore, P., Wauben, L. and Reinders, A.H.M.E., Insights from stakeholders in five residential smart grid pilot projects in the Netherlands, Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, Vol. 7, pp 1-15, 2016.

Apostolou, G. and Reinders, A.H.M.E., How do users interact with PV-powered products? Investigating 100 lead users and 6 PV products, Journal of Design Research, Vol 14, No. 1, pp 66-93, 2016.

Veldhuis, A.J. and Reinders, A.H.M.E., Reviewing the potential and cost-effectiveness of off-Grid PV systems in Indonesia on a provincial level, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol 52, pp 757–769, 2015.

Veldhuis, A.J., Nobre, A.M., Peters, I.M., Reindl, T., Rüther, R. and Reinders, A.H.M.E., An empirical model for rack-mounted PV module temperatures for Southeast Asian locations evaluated for minute time scales, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, Vol 5, No. 3, pp 774-782, 2015.

Vishwanathan, B., Reinders, A. H. M. E , De Boer, D. K. G.,  Desmet, L., Ras, A. J., M., Zahn, F. H. and Debije, M. G., A comparison of performance of flat and bent photovoltaic luminescent solar concentrators, Solar Energy, Vol 112, pp 120-127, 2015.

Reinders, A.H.M.E., Technical Summary of 2014 IEEE PVSC Conference, IEEE EDS Newsletter, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp 5, 2014.

Apostolou, G. and Reinders, A.H.M.E., Overview of design issues in product-integrated PV, Journal of Energy Technology, Vol 2, Issue 3, pp 229–242, 2014.

Geenhuizen, M. van, Schoonman, J. and Reinders, A.H.M.E., Diffusion of solar energy use in the built environment supported by new design, Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Vol 8, No. 2, pp 253-260, 2014.

Veldhuis, A.J. and Reinders, A.H.M.E., Reviewing the potential and cost-effectiveness of grid-connected solar PV in Indonesia on a provincial level, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol 27, pp 315-324, 2013.

Geelen, D., Reinders, A.H.M.E. and Keyson, D., Empowering the end-user in smart grids: Overview of and recommendations for the design of products and services, Energy Policy, Vol 61, pp 151–161, 2013.

Veldhuis, J. and Reinders, A.H.M.E., Real time irradiance simulation for PV products and building integrated PV in a virtual reality environment, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, Vol 2, Issue 3, pp 352-358, 2012.

Gorter, T. and Reinders, A.H.M.E., A comparison of 16 polymer encapsulants for crystalline PV cells applications in PV-powered boats, Applied Energy, Vol 92, pp 286-297, 2012.

Durlinger, B.,  Reinders, A.H.M.E. and Toxopeus, M.E, A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South East Asia, Renewable Energy, Vol 41, pp 96-104, 2012.

Entrop, A.G., Brouwers, H.J.H. and Reinders, A.H.M.E., Experimental research on the use of micro-encapsulated Phase Change Materials to store solar energy in concrete floors in order to save energy in Dutch houses, Solar Energy, Vol 85, Issue 5, pp 1007-1020, 2011.

Entrop, A.G., Reinders, A.H.M.E. and Brouwers, H.J.H., Evaluation of financial aspects and energy performance indicators of residential real estate in the Netherlands, Energy & Buildings, Vol 42, Issue 5, pp 618-629, 2010.

De Jong, M., Reinders, A, Kok, J. and Westendorp, G., Optimizing a steam-reformer for hydrogen production, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol 34, pp 285-292, 2009.

Reinders, A.H.M.E., Verlinden, P.J., Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M. and Freundlich, A., Photovoltaic Solar Energy – From Fundamentals to Applications, Hard-cover book, 665 pages, Wiley & Sons, London, 2017

Ruud Balkenende, Rolf Bossert, Wilco Braam, Bas de Bruin, Ardi Dortmans, Wiebe Draijer, Joyeeta Gupta, Antoine Heideveld, Margriet Jansz, Jan Jonker, Guido Mul, Kitty Nijmeijer, Erik Offerman, Angele Reinders, Jacco Saurwalt, Mark Schmets, Linda Steg, Arnold Tukker, Richard van de Sanden, Oscar van den Brink, Jan Peter van der Hoek, Annemieke van der Kooij, Erik van Seventer, Louise Vet and Ernst Worrell, NWA route 12 Circulaire Economie en Grondstoffenefficiëntie: Duurzame Circulaire Impact (in English: NSA route 12 Circular Economy and Material Efficiency : Sustainable Circular Impact), Chapter in Final Report of the National Science Agenda,, 2016

Reinders, A.H.M.E., Diehl, J.C. and Brezet, J.C., The Power of Design: Product Innovation in Sustainable Energy Technologies, Hard-cover book, 368 pages, ISBN: 978-1-1183-0867-7, John Wiley & Sons, London, 2013.

Eggink, W. & A.H.M.E. Reinders, Product Integrated PV: The Future is Design and Styling  In: Proceedings of the 32nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition; Munich; 20-24 June 2016.

Eggink, W. & A.H.M.E. Reinders, The Design and Styling of Technology-based Innovations.  In: Proceedings of the 5th World Conference on Design Research; Tokyo; August 26 - 30, 2013.

Eggink, W. & A.H.M.E. Reinders, Design it with LSCs; an exploration of applications for Luminescent Solar Concentrator PV technologies. IEEE PVSC-44, In Print, Washington D.C.

Eggink, W., Sustainable technologies, Aesthetics and diffusion; a historical perspective. DHS 2017 Conference Making and Unmaking the Environment, In Print, University of Oslo.

Eggink, W. and J. Snippert. Future Aesthetics of Technology; context specific theories from design and philosophy of technology. In: Proceedings of 12th EAD Conference, Design for Next. In Print. Sapienza University of Rome.

Ten Klooster, R. De Koeijer, B., De Lange, J.; Towards a Generic Set of Packaging Material Key Figures, 20th IAPRI World Conference on Packaging, 2016; Lausanne, Switzerland

Ten Klooster, R., De Koeijer, B.; Utilising the Potential of Design Briefs in Sustainable Packaging Development, 28th IAPRI Symposium on Packaging, 2017; Campinas, Brazil

J. de Lange, E.J. Oude Luttikhuis, R. ten Klooster, E. Lutters, Towards integrating sustainability in the development of product/packaging combinations (Design Conference van CIRP in Bochum)

E. Lutters, E.J. Oude Luttikhuis, M.E. Toxopeus, R. ten Klooster, Appropriateness of Life Cycle Assessment for product/packaging combinations (COMA Conference South-Africa)

Using actor networks in decision making during content-packaging; E.J. Oude Luttikhuis, J. de Lange, R. ten Klooster, E. Lutters; Procedia CIRP; 21st CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Trondheim, Norway, 18-20 June 2014, Elsevier

Project-led Education in Packaging Development and Management ; E.J. Oude Luttikhuis, J. de Lange, R. ten Klooster, E. Lutters; Procedia CIRP; 24th CIRP Design Conference, Milano Italy, 14-16 April 2014, Elsevier

Networked Design Decisions in Balanced Life Cycles; J. de Lange, E.J. Oude Luttikhuis, E. Lutters;

Procedia CIRP, 24th CIRP Design Conference, Milano Italy, 14-16 April 2014, Elsevier

Oude Luttikhuis, E.J., Toxopeus, M.E. & Lutters, D. (2015). Effective Integration of Life Cycle Engineering in Education. In S. Kara (Ed.), The 22nd CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering (pp. 550-555). Elsevier

Oude Luttikhuis, E.J., Lange, J. de, Lutters, D. & Klooster, R. ten (2015). Evolving Product Information in Aligning Product Development Decisions across Disciplines. In S. Kara (Ed.), The 22nd CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering Vol. 29. Procedia CIRP (pp. 573-578). Elsevier.