Research Methods



Co-Design approaches emphasise the cooperation among designers, future users, and other relevant stakeholders in the design process to create new products and services that address the needs and wishes of all stakeholders who will be affected by the new design. For this, co-design tools and techniques focus on helping involved stakeholders to express their needs and visions, and in doing so, to share their expertise with other stakeholders.

Scenario Based Product Design 

Designing products relevant for the needs of users and their use situations involve a large amount of information that may often conflict with each other. Such information is traditionally presented in the form of design requirements or design specifications within and across design teams. However, dealing with a large number of possibly contradicting requirements is a challenging task. To address this challenge, scenarios provide a low-cost, easy, and accessible communication tool.

Scenarios are stories of people using a product in a certain context that can be used to explain design decisions, pinpoint where design problems may arise, and elaborate potential solutions. These stories can be represented through several media such as narratives, storyboards, movies and virtual reality. The methodology that uses scenarios to guide the development of user-relevant products and services is called "scenario based product design" or shortly SBPD. Read more about how we incorporate Scenario Based Product Design in our educational activities (here, link to the Scenario Based Product Design module).

Dilemma-Driven Design

People often want multiple things at the same time. Because of this we face many dilemmas in everyday life: we may want to eat whatever we desire, and at the same time, wish to remain slim. Or, we may want to embrace new technologies in everyday life, yet feel threatened when such technologies interfere with our safety or personal autonomy. What do these dilemmas mean for human centered design?

The richness of the dilemma phenomenon and the wide variety of dilemmas people experience offer an unexplored yet promising space for human centered design. Dilemma-driven design is an approach that uses personal dilemmas as the main starting point for developing new products and services . As shown in the below figure, designing with dilemmas involves three main activities. These are (1) discovery: identifying personal dilemmas relevant for a given design brief, (2) definition: analyzing identified dilemmas and defining their root causes (i.e., defining a critical standpoint), and (3) application: creating design ideas that can raise awareness about the root causes of personal dilemmas. For detailed information on this approach, please refer to the research website of Dr. Deger Ozkaramanli:

Collaborative prototyping