Present and future metrology needs for the semiconductor industry
Paul van der Heide, IMEC (Leuven, Belgium)
Following a brief introduction of imec (an international R&D organization, active in the fields of nanoelectronics and digital technologies with roadmaps extending into the 2030s), this talk will delve into the analytical metrologies (both the inline metrologies and offline materials characterization capabilities) required to support semiconductor chip manufacturing of today and tomorrow. And with leading Logic nodes now at the 3 nm level, imaging to the atomic scale is routinely carried out via SEM and TEM. And with TEM also having an internal reference, it also provides the ground truth for many simulation-based techniques, such as OCD, XRD/XRR, CD-SACS, etc. Along with this is the need to define surface topography, which is where AFM fits in. Compositional information, inclusive of impurities and dopants, is provided by EDX, EELS, SIMS, XPS, etc. R&D benefits from additional techniques such as APT, Raman, PL, RBD/ERD, SPM, etc. To conclude, some potential new techniques that may be required for supporting tomorrows beyond CMOS industry will be touched upon.
Paul is the Director of the Materials and Component Analysis (MCA) department and co-founder of the imec AttoLab, both centered at imec site in Leuven, Belgium site. The scope of MCA is a) to support the materials characterization needs of imec’s nano-electronics R&D programs (capabilities include, in alphabetical order, APT, ARPES, ERD, FIB, Raman, RBS, SIMS, PL, SEM, SPM, TEM, UPS, XPS, ...), and b) to explore, develop and implement the materials characterization capabilities required by tomorrow’s industry. The AttoLab, is a new initiative focused on examining new materials characterization capabilities.
Prior to moving to imec, Paul held positions at GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Malta, NY, USA (where he headed the end-to-end analytical labs support for semiconductor chip High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) and R&D), Samsung, Austin, TX, USA (where he established and managed the surface characterization labs for supporting HVM), and the University of Houston, TX, USA (where he lectured in physical chemistry and surface analysis, while also setup and managed the MRSEC SIMS-XPS facility).
Paul earned a PhD in Physical Chemistry from the University of Auckland, New Zealand (topic concerned the design and construction of a magnetic sector SIMS instrument), has authored /co-authored over to 200 publications, has presented ~20 invited talks and 2 plenary talks, and is sole author of two books published through Wiley.
- Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: An introduction to principles and practices, Wiley (2014) http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1118480481.html
- X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy: An introduction to principles and practices, Wiley (2011) http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1118062531.html
Characterization of sub-nm length scale change in ultrathin films using in-lab X-ray standing wave technique
Dr. Atul Tiwari (XUV)
SMSI is a phenomenon observed in supported metal catalyst system, in which reducible metal-oxide supports can form overlayers over the active metal nanoparticles (Me NPs) surface, under hydrogen (H2) environment at elevated temperatures. To study the SMSI on ensembles of NPs and in-situ, element-sensitive technique is needed. SMSI can also be understood as an expansion of the Me atomic profile from the metal oxide layer position to the broader distribution. Precise knowledge of Me atom distribution can be used to characterize the SMSI effect. X-ray standing wave (XSW) technique is suited for this, as it allows measure changes in atomic distribution profile at sub-nanometer scale by measuring angular-dependent X-ray fluorescence (XRF). We have studied a model catalyst system of Co NPs (~10-15 nm) supported on TiO2 (~2.5 nm). The model catalyst system was synthesized on top of a periodic multilayer of MoN/SiN to generate XSW. This novel methodological approach as well as first results hinting towards SMSI in the model catalyst system will be discussed.