Wu - Extracellular matrix domain formation as an indicator of chondrocyte dedifferentiation and hypertrophy

Wu L., Gonzalez S., Shah S., Kyupelyan L., Petrigliano F.A., McAllister D.R., Adams J.S., Karperien M., Tuan T.L., Benya P.D., Evseenko D.

Tissue Eng Par C Methods - 2014


Cartilage injury represents one of the most significant clinical conditions. Implantation of expanded autologous chondrocytes from noninjured compartments of the joint is a typical strategy for repairing cartilage. However, two-dimensional culture causes dedifferentiation of chondrocytes, making them functionally inferior for cartilage repair. We hypothesized that functional exclusion of dedifferentiated chondrocytes can be achieved by the selective mapping of collagen molecules deposited by chondrogenic cells in a three-dimensional environment. Freshly isolated and in vitro expanded human fetal or adult articular chondrocytes were cultured in a thermoreversible hydrogel at density of 1 × 10(7) cells/mL for 24 h. Chondrocytes were released from the gel, stained with antibodies against collagen type 2 (COL II) or COL I or COL X and sorted by fluorescence activated cell sorting. Imaging flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) assays were performed to evaluate the differences between COL II domain forming and COL II domain-negative cells. Freshly dissected periarticular chondrocytes robustly formed domains that consisted of the extracellular matrix surrounding cells in the hydrogel as a capsule clearly detectable by imaging flow cytometry (ImageStream) and confocal microscopy. These domains were almost exclusively formed by COL II. In contrast to that, a significant percentage of freshly isolated growth plate pre-hypertrophic and hyperdrophic chondrocytes deposited matrix domains positive for COL II, COL I, and COL X. The proportion of the cells producing COL II domains decreased with the increased passage of in vitro expanded periarticular fetal or adult articular chondrocytes.