Leijten J.C.H - GREM1, FRZB and DKK1 mRNA levels correlate with osteoarthritis and are regulated by osteoarthritis-associated factors
Jeroen CH Leijten, Steffan D Bos, Ellie BM Landman, Nicole Georgi, Holger Jahr, Ingrid Meulenbelt, Janine N Post, Clemens A van Blitterswijk and Marcel Karperien
Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013
Osteoarthritis is, at least in a subset of patients, associated with hypertrophic differentiation of articular chondrocytes. Recently, we identified the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and wingless-type MMTV integration site (WNT) signaling antagonists Gremlin 1 (GREM1), frizzled-related protein (FRZB) and dickkopf 1 homolog (Xenopus laevis) (DKK1) as articular cartilage’s natural brakes of hypertrophic differentiation. In this study, we investigated whether factors implicated in osteoarthritis or regulation of chondrocyte hypertrophy influence GREM1, FRZB and DKK1 expression levels.