Panel 10: International Organisations

New Centres of Governance

Chaired by: prof dr. Bertjan Verbeek (RUN) & prof. dr. Ramses Wessel (UT)

b.verbeek@fm.ru.nl & r.a.wessel@utwente.nl

Panel outline

Since some 25 years international organizations (defiend as intergovernmental organizations or IGOs) have played an increasingly important role in world politics. Several causes lie at the heart of this development: the end of the Cold War ended the [paralyzing effect of East-West comflict on international cooperation; economic globalization pushed nation states into delegating coordinating tasks to old of newly founded global institutions; the widening and deepening of European integration reinforced the supranational character of the European Union (EU), the success of which set an example to other regional organizations; technological developments demanded new international agreements and the setting of international standards.

Parallel to this development we are witness to the increased acceptance of international norms by different global actors, including sovereign states, often embodied in these international institutions. Some even speak of a slow juridification of world politics and of the existence of international ‘legislation’. In addition, the international secretariats of IGOs (the international bureaucracy or international civil servants) have assumed a more important role, at times even a leadership role, in all phases of the policy cycle: agenda setting, decision making, implementation and evaluation. The importance of this role may vary across IGO type and across policy areas. IGOs thus have become more or less autonomous players in global politics that engage with sovereign nation states, businesses, (national and international) NGOs, media and individual citizens. Clearly, IGOs are increasingly considered to resemble the growth of a global layer of governance; not only do they coordinate the task delegated to them, but are increasingly steering policies in certain directions and are an essential ingredient of international ‘norm-setting’.

Reflecting these developments, many disciplines increasingly pay attention to IGOs. So far, however, most effort seems to be devoted to the study of European institutions. The proposed workshop seeks to broaden that attention to many more IGOs, while not neglecting the important of the EU. Its aim is to bring together scholars from various disciplines who investigate IGOs (including regional organizations such as the EU): public administration, economics, law, environmental sciences, history, sociology as well as political science. The workshop seeks to address the following research questions:

a)

To what extent can IGOs be characterized as autonomous actors in their specific domain?

b)

Which instruments do they apply in that role?

c)

To what extent are they capable of setting the policy in different phases of the policy cycle?

d)

What variation exists across IGOs, and across policy domains and how to account for such differences?

e)

Do international secretariats have policy preferences of their own and how to account for these preferences?

The workshop thus seeks to map out in a systematic fashion the research that is conducted into IGOs in Belgium and the Netherlands and to establish an multidisciplinary network of scholars aimed at future cooperation. The workshop contributes to all of Nig’s four research themes: because the EU is an important example of a relatively autonomous IGO papers on the EU will contribute to knowledge on ´Multi-level governance and Europe´. Because IGOs, are facing many different stakeholders and complex policy problems, especially in the implementation phase, will the workshop contribute to ´Multi-actor governance in complexity´. Because IGOs are often accused of lack of transparency and because their authority is often challenged, the workshop contributes to ´Political institutions and democracy´. Because the workshop explicitly seeks papers on internal process within IGOs and on external communication by IGOs, the workshop theme also fits ´Public Management´.

The principal goal of the workshop is to investigate the changing (more autonomous) role of IGOs in global governance and norm setting. We expect papers from various disciplines, investigating various IGOs on different policy domains addressing processes in various phases of the policy cycle. In addition, we invite papers on IGOs’ internal dynamics. We welcome papers from all theoretical and methodological inroads.

The workshop directors have since long investigated the role of IGOs, one from a legal, the other from a political science perspective.

About Bertjan Verbeek

Bertjan Verbeek is Professor of International Relations at Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. His publications on IGOs include:

- Eva-Karin Olsson & Bertjan Verbeek, 'International Organizations and Crisis Management', in Bob Reinalda (ed)Handbook of International Organizations, London: Routledge, forthcoming 2013.

- Bob Reinalda & Bertjan Verbeek, 'Leadership of International Organizations', in Paul 't Hart & Rod Rhodes (eds), Oxford Handbook of Political Leadership, Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming 2013

- Bob Reinalda & Bertjan Verbeek, ‘International Relations Theory and Autonomy of International Organizations', in Richard Collins and Nigel White (eds.), International organizations in international law, London: Routledge, 2011, pp. 86-103

- Bertjan Verbeek,Leadership of International Organizations’, in John Kane, Haig Patapan, and Paul ‘t Hart (eds.), Dispersed Democratic Leadership: Origins, Dynamics, and Implications, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 235-255.

- Jutta Joachim, Bob Reinalda & Bertjan Verbeek (eds.), International Organizations and Implementation: Enforcers, Managers, Authorities?, London, Routledge, 2008.

- Jutta Joachim,  Bob Reinalda & Bertjan Verbeek, ‘International Organizations and Implementation: Pieces of the Puzzle’, in ibid. (eds), International Organizations and Implementation: Enforcers, Managers, Authorities?, London: Routledge, 2008, pp. 3-16.

- Jutta Joachim, Bob Reinalda & Bertjan Verbeek, ‘Enforces, Managers, Authorities? International Organizations and Implementation’, ibid. in (eds), International Organizations and Implementation: Enforcers, Managers, Authorities?, London, Routledge, 2008, pp. 177-190.

- Bob Reinalda & Bertjan Verbeek (eds), Decision-making within International Organizations, London: Routledge, 2004 (260 pp).

- Bob Reinalda & Bertjan Verbeek, ‘The issue of decision making within international organization’, in Bob Reinalda and Bertjan Verbeek (eds.), Decision Making within International Organizations, London: Routledge, 2004, pp. 9-41.

- Bob Reinalda & ‘Patterns of decision making within international organizations’, in Bob Reinalda and Bertjan Verbeek (eds.), Decision Making within International Organizations, London: Routledge, 2004, pp. 231-246.

- Bob Reinalda & Bertjan Verbeek, ‘Theorizing Power Relations between Non-State Actors, Inter-Governmental Organizations and States’, in Bas Arts, Marth Noorman, and Bob Reinalda (eds.), Non-State Actors in International Politics, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001, pp. 145-158.

- Bob Reinalda & Bertjan Verbeek, ‘Decision Making within International Organizations: A challenge to political science’, ECPR News, (11), 3, Summer 2000, pp. 8-9.

- Bob Reinalda & Bertjan Verbeek (eds.), Autonomous Policymaking by Internatio­nal Organizations, London: Routledge, 1998 (220 pp.).

- Bob Reinalda & Bertjan Verbeek, ‘Autonomous policy making by international organizati­ons: concepts, questions, results’ in Bob Reinalda and Bertjan Verbeek (eds.), Autono­mous Policymaking by Internatio­nal Organizations, London: Routledge, 1998, pp. 1-8.

- Bertjan Verbeek, ‘International organizations: the ugly duckling of international relations theory’ in Bob Reinalda and Bertjan Verbeek (eds.), Autonomous Policymaking by Internatio­nal Organizati­ons, London: Routledge, 1998, pp. 11-26.

About Ramses Wessel

Ramses Wessel is Professor of Law of the European Union ad International Organizations at Twente University. His publications on IGOs include:

- R.A. Wessel, International Governmental Organizations, in M. Noortmann, A. Reinisch and C. Ryngaert (Eds.), Non-State Actors in International Law, Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2014 (planned)

- R.A. Wessel, Executive Boards and Councils, in J. Cogan, I. Hurd and I. Johnston (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of International Organizations, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014 (planned)

- R.A. Wessel, Institutional Law-Making: The Development of a Global Normative Web, in C. Bröllman and Y. Radi (Eds.), Research Handbook on the Theory and Practice of International Law-Making, Cheltenham/Northhampton: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013 (forthcoming)

- N.M. Blokker and R.A. Wessel, First Views at the Articles on The Responsibility of International Organizations, International Organizations Law Review, 2012, no. 1, 2013, pp. 1-6

- R.A. Wessel and S. Blockmans (Eds.), Between Autonomy and Dependence: The EU Legal Order Under the Influence of International Organisations, The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press/Springer, 2013

- A. Berman, S. Duquet J. Pauwelyn, R.A. Wessel, and J. Wouters, (Eds.), Informal International Lawmaking: Case Studies, The Hague: Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, 2012

- J. Pauwelyn, R.A. Wessel and J. Wouters, Informal International Lawmaking: An Assessment and Template to Keep it Both Effective and Accountable, in J. Pauwelyn, R.A. Wessel and J. Wouters (Eds.), Informal International Lawmaking, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 500-537; available on SSRN)

- D.W.P. Ruiter and R.A. Wessel, The Legal Nature of Informal International Law: A Legal Theoretical Exercise, in J. Pauwelyn, R.A. Wessel and J. Wouters (Eds.), Informal International Lawmaking, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 162-184

- A. Berman and R.A. Wessel, The International Legal Status of Informal International Law-making Bodies: Consequences for Accountability, in J. Pauwelyn, R.A. Wessel and J. Wouters (Eds.), Informal International Lawmaking, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 35-62

- J. Pauwelyn, R.A. Wessel and J. Wouters (Eds.), Informal International Lawmaking, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012

- R.A. Wessel, Regulating Technological Innovation through Informal International Law: The Exercise of International Public Authority by Transnational Actors, in M.A. Heldeweg and E. Kica (Eds.), Regulating Technological Innovation: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2011, pp. 77-94

- R.A. Wessel, Informal International Law-Making as a New Form of World Legislation?, International Organizations Law Review, 2011, pp. 253-265

- R.A. Wessel, Dissolution and Succession: The Transmigration of the Soul of International Organizations, in J. Klabbers and Å. Wallendahl (Eds.), Research Handbook on the Law of International Organizations, Cheltenham, etc.: Edward Elgar Publishers, 2011, pp. 342-362

- E. Chiti and R.A. Wessel, The Emergence of International Agencies in the Global Administrative Space: Autonomous Actors or State Servants?, in N.D. White and R. Collins (Eds.), International Organizations and the Idea of Autonomy: Institutional Independence in the International Legal Order, Routledge, 2011, pp. 142-159

- R.A. Wessel, De opkomst van internationale wet- en regelgeving: naar een andere verhouding tussen internationaal en nationaal recht?, in B. Niemeijer, M. Smit and P. Winkelman (Eds.), Internationalisering, veiligheid en recht, The Hague: Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie, 2011, pp. 14-21

- I.F. Dekker and R.A. Wessel, De aangesproken lidstaat. De internationale aansprakelijkheid en verantwoordelijkheid van de staat als lid van een internationale organisatie, in L.F.M. Besselink and R. Nehmelman (eds.), De aangesproken staat: verantwoordelijkheid, aansprakelijkheid en immuniteit van de overheid, Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers, 2010

- A. Føllesdal, R.A. Wessel and J. Wouters (Eds.), Multilevel Regulation and the EU: The Interplay between Global, European and National Normative Processes, Leiden, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2008

- R.A. Wessel and J. Wouters, The Phenomenon of Multilevel Regulation: Interactions between Global, EU and National Regulatory Spheres, in A. Føllesdal, R.A. Wessel and J. Wouters (Eds.), Multilevel Regulation and the EU: The Interplay between Global, European and National Normative Processes, Leiden, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2008, pp. 9-47; in shorter form published in International Organizations Law Review, 2007, No. 2, pp. 257-289 and in D. Curtin and A. Wille (Eds.), Meaning and Practice of Accountability in the EU Multi-Level Context, Mannheim: connex Report Series No. 7, 2008, Chapter 11, pp. 281-426

- R.A. Wessel, Internationale organisaties als regelgevers, Vrede en Veiligheid, 2006, no. 1, pp. 10-29

- R.A. Wessel, The Invasion by International Organizations. De toenemende samenhang tussen de mondiale, Europese en nationale rechtsorde, Inaugural Lecture, University of Twente, 2006

- N.M. Blokker and R.A. Wessel, Updating International Organizations, International Organizations Law Review, 2005, No. 1, pp. 1-8

- B.T. van Ginkel and R.A. Wessel, Bestuurlijke vernieuwing van de VN-Veiligheidsraad. Wereldwetgever of achterhaald instituut?, in: B. Bomert, Th. van den Hoogen and R.A. Wessel (Eds.), Jaarboek Vrede en Veiligheid 2004, Nijmegen: Center for International Conflict Analysis and Management, 2004, pp. 1-31

- I.F. Dekker and R.A. Wessel, De constitutionalisering van internationale organisaties: over bevoegdheden en democratische legitimiteit, Vrede en veiligheid, tijdschrift voor internationale vraagstukken, 2004, nr. 1

- R.A. Wessel, Debating the ‘Smartness’ of Anti-Terrorism Sanctions: The UN Security Council and the Citizen, in C. Fijnaut, J. Wouters and F. Naert (Eds.), Legal Instruments in the Fight Against International Terrorism. A Transatlantic Dialogue, Boston/Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2004, pp. 633-660

- I.F. Dekker and R.A. Wessel, Governance by International Organisations: Rethinking the Source and Normative Force of International Decisions, in I.F. Dekker and W. Werner (Eds.), Governance and International Legal Theory, Leiden/ Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2004, pp. 215-236

- B.T. van Ginkel and R.A. Wessel, VN-sancties en het individu: wordt de Veiligheidsraad slimmer?, in B. Bomert, Th. van den Hoogen and R.A. Wessel (red.), Jaarboek Vrede en Veiligheid 2002, Nijmegen: Center for International Conflict Analysis and

- R.A. Wessel, Lowering the corporate veil. Het recht der internationale organisaties vanuit de institutionele rechtstheorie, in: M.A. Heldeweg, R.J.P. Schobben, W.G. Werner (red.), De Regel Meester. Opstellen voor Dick W.P. Ruiter, Enschede: Twente University Press, 2001, pp. 5-22