How does an XPS work; an introduction.
One of the most used applications of XPS is the measurement of the elemental composition of a surface.
With a scanning XPS it is possible to map the elemental composition of structured surfaces
An argon gun facilitates removal of atoms from the surface, generating sputter craters of which the composition of the fresh surface can be determined again. This results in a depth profile
As each atom in a solid is bound with several neighbours, there will be a shift in the electron energy shells due to this binding. XPS will show these shifts.