rules printed readers

(partially taken from the University Library Leiden, with their kind permission)

1. Inclusion of so-called ‘short extracts’ is free of charge. All Dutch universities have an agreement with the PRO foundation for these “short extracts’.

What is a short extract?


From a non literary book: a maximum of 10.000 words, but not more than one third of the work;


From a journal: a maximum of 8000 words, but not more than one third of the edition concerned;


From a literary work: a maximum of 2500 words or maximum 100 lines of poetry;


Graphs, tables, diagrams, photographs and illustrations count for 200 words. A maximum of 25 of these ‘units’ can be used from one original work.

2. Journal articles from certain publishers may be included in their entirety in a printed or digital reader. You can check publishers policy in the publishers list

NB! Publishers policy can change. Check regularly whether inclusion is still permitted, otherwise you run the risk of high fines!

3. If a publication is available on the internet with Open Access, it may be included in its entirety in a printed or digital reader without fear of prosecution. Open Access means ‘freely accessible publication' from, for example university repositories or free scientific journals.

4. If you want to include an ‘extended extract' in a reader (and points 2 or 3 above are not applicable) then you can apply for permission to the PRO Foundation (NL). If permission is given, there will be a charge for the rights. The costs for ‘extended extracts will be charged to the faculty or institute!

Cost table PRO (NL)

If you want the students to pay these charges you can consider to recoupe the costs from the students.

NB. Frequently it is possible to purchase an e-book version of a book. Then linking in Blackboard is allowed, see rules for digital readers.

5. Always include a correct reference of the extracts used! There are a number of standard protocols, a frequently used example is that according to APA (pdf).

Relevant links

Info Point Readers can help you with the compilation and the use of readers as well as the administrative processing of extended extracts.

Tips for word counts.

Comprehensive information regarding copyright about readers.