School Management & Organisation

For the topic School Management & Organisation the following literature should be studied:

Visscher, A.J. (1999). Introduction to organizational and management aspects of schools. In A.J. Visscher (Ed.),
Managing schools toward high performance. Linking school management theory to the school effectiveness knowledge base (pp. 3-36). Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.

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The overall goal of this chapter is to provide the reader with some insight into the features of schools as organizations. The following topics are addressed: How is the organization called 'school' structured? Which major organizational activities take place in them? Does the organization of schools cause problems for those who have to run these institutions? What possibilities does the administrative context of schools offer for controlling them? The chapter consists of five elements. It starts in section 1.2 with a description of the increased attention given to the organizational and management perspective on educational institutions. Subsequently, a conceptual framework for analyzing educational institutions from an organization's point of view is presented (section 1.3). This framework explains the meaning of the 'organization' concept and important features of (school) organizations: their structures, processes, cultures, and the relationship between an organization and its environment. The third element (section 1.4) concerns a description of the organizational problems with which secondary schools must cope. In section 1.5 some structural constraints on the administration of schools are discussed which influence how and the degree to which schools can be administered and managed. Finally, the chapter is summarized in section 1.6.


Hoy, K. & Miskel, G. (2008). School effectiveness, accountability and improvement. In K. Hoy & G. Miskel (Eds.),
Educational Administration. Theory, research and practice (pp. 291 -323). New York: McGraw-Hill.

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In this chapter we posit that important constituents in the external environment of schools are calling for added emphasis on task accomplishment. As an overall generalization of open-systems theory, outputs of schools are a function of the interaction of five internal transformation elements as shaped and constrained by environmental forces. We further specify this generalization with a congruence hypothesis that other things being equal, the greater the harmony among the transformation elements, the more effective the system. Clearly, organizational effectiveness constitutes a key and integrating concept in open-systems theory and poses increasingly difficult practical tests for school leaders.

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