What we do

Conflict and environment in North Lebanon

Conflict and Environment in North Lebanon

The program ‘Conflict and Environment’ [Conflict en Milieu] in North Lebanon has been completed. The program focused on vulnerability of local population groups in North Lebanon, in an area that is characterized by repeated episodes of armed conflict(s) and war. In this research program, we addressed ‘vulnerability’ from a variety of disciplines and perspectives. Three components are essential in the analysis of vulnerability: exposure, sensitivity and resilience. One of the findings is that communal structures often seemed more important for determining resilience than individual empowerment, logically reflects Lebanon’s communal political system; where citizenship depends less on individual rights than on group membership.

The research was conducted by the University of Twente in cooperation with the Institute of Environment (IoE) of the University of Balamand in North-Lebanon and was funded through WOTRO Science for Global Development, part of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).

  • Research Period: 1 September 2009 – 31 December 2014
  • Funding: NWO – WOTRO Science for Global Development
  • Total budget: 665,433 Euro (including own contribution)
  • Implementation: University of Twente; University of Balamand, Lebanon, with input from Centre for Conflict Studies, Utrecht University, the Netherlands

Van der Molen, I. en Stel, N. 2015. Conflict and Environment in North Lebanon. Vulnerability and resilience from a multi-disciplinary perspective. Ipskamp Drukkers. Enschede. ISBN 978-94-6259-527-9.         The book can be ordered by sending an email to: veiligheid@utwente.nl 20 Euro.






Issa, Sahar. 2014. A glimmer of hope? An assessment of vulnerability and empowerment in the coastal area of North Lebanon. Dissertation University of Twente. ISBN 978-90-365-3714






Abbas, N. 2014. The impact of trust relationships on environmental management in North Lebanon. Dissertation University of Twente. Dissertation University of Twente. ISBN 978-90-365-3715-5







(English video)

(Arabic video)

Other output of the program:

Expert Meeting

Expert Meeting 'Vulnerability, Resilience and Disaster Preparedness in Lebanon'. Organized by the University of Twente & University of Balamand in cooperation with The Hague Institute for Global Justice. 23 September 2014. The Hague, the Netherlands.

Thematically and geographically related (but not output from this project):

Stel, Nora and Molen, Irna van der (2015) Environmental vulnerability as a legacy of violent conflict: a case study of the 2012 waste crisis in the Palestinian gathering of Shabriha, South Lebanon. Conflict, security & development . ISSN 1467-8802