Reinhoudt Lecture by Prof. Lydia Bourouiba, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA
Pathogen transmission and fluid physics: insights and challenges
The fundamental mechanisms governing transmission of and contamination by most pathogens remain poorly understood. This is particularly true for respiratory infectious diseases. Fluid processes and physical laws at various scales combined with biological processes are key in filling this gap. In this talk, I will discuss how fluid dynamics and, in particular, interfacial, multiphase flows and fluid fragmentation are critical in shaping pathogen transport and transmission indoors.
Prof. Bourouiba founded and directs The Fluid Dynamics of Disease Transmission Laboratory at MIT. Her research interests and activities span a broad range of applied mathematics approaches at the intersection of physics and biology, and curiosity driven fluid dynamic experiments at various scales to elucidate the fundamental physical mechanisms shaping microorganisms and pathogen transport, with a focus on elucidating poorly understood mechanisms of disease transmission through the lens of fluid dynamics, biophysics and their mathematical modeling. She has worked on various fluid dynamics problems from turbulence to interfacial flows and her recent work elucidated multi-scale dynamics of unsteady fluid fragmentation, droplet and bubble dynamics, and complex and multiphase flows with particular interest in the physics and biology that drive mixing, transport, persistence, and adaptation of pathogens relevant to contamination and health. Prof. Bourouiba is the recipient of many awards and recognitions, including the Tse Cheuk Ng Tai’s Prize for Innovative Research in Health Sciences, the Ole Madsen Mentoring Award, the Smith Family Foundation Odyssey Award for high-risk/high-reward basic science research. She was elected fellow of the American Physical Society in 2021 for “fundamental work in quantitatively elucidating the mechanisms of droplet impact and fragmentation, and for pioneering a new field at the intersection of fluid dynamics and transmission of respiratory and foodborne pathogens, with clear and tangible contributions to public health.” She was elected fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering For groundbreaking contributions to our fundamental understanding of unsteady fluid fragmentation and its application to the spread of contagious diseases” in 2022.
Prof. Patricia Lago, Vrije Universiteit (VU), Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Empowering Software Solutions for Cloud Sustainability
Software-intensive solutions can help, or hinder, the achievement of sustainability goals. Our Software Assessment Framework (SAF) Toolkit aims to help IT professionals make explicit the sustainability-relevant design concerns they want their software solutions to address. In this way, they can link them to the target sustainability goals, and deploy a monitoring process to measure sustainability as a software quality property.
In this talk, I introduce the SAF Toolkit, and its potential application in the context of cloud provisioning. Based on possible scenarios for a future sustainable cloud, I reflect on promises, impediments, and directions for change.
Patricia Lago is a professor at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands, where she leads the Software and Sustainability (S2) research group in the Computer Science Department. She is the recipient of the ‘degree of doctor honoris causa’ at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, the top-ranked technology university in Norway, in recognition of her scientific contributions to digital transformation and the development of more sustainable software.
Her passion in research is to create software engineering knowledge that makes software better, smarter, and more sustainable. Her research focuses on software architecture, software quality assessment, and software sustainability.
She is initiator of the VU Computer Science Master Track in Software Engineering and Green IT, the director of the Master Information Sciences and co-founder of the Green Lab, a place where researchers, students and companies collaborate to measure the energy footprint of software solutions and the impact on software quality. She has a PhD in Control and Computer Engineering from Politecnico di Torino and a Master in Computer Science from the University of Pisa, both in Italy.
Prof. Matthias Lütolf – EPFL (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne), Lausanne, Switzerland
Engineering Organoid Development
Organoids form through poorly understood morphogenetic processes in which initially homogeneous ensembles of stem cells spontaneously self-organize in suspension or within permissive three-dimensional extracellular matrices. Yet, the absence of virtually any predefined patterning influences such as morphogen gradients or mechanical cues results in an extensive heterogeneity. Moreover, the current mismatch in shape, size and lifespan between native organs and their in vitro counterparts hinders their even wider applicability. In this talk, Matthias will discuss some of our ongoing efforts in developing next-generation organoids that are assembled by guiding cell-intrinsic self-patterning through engineered stem cell microenvironments.
About Matthias Lütolf
Matthias Lütolf is the Scientific Director of the Roche Institute for Translational Bioengineering and a Professor of Bioengineering at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). His research focuses on the use of cutting-edge bioengineering strategies to guide stem cell-based development to build novel organoids with improved reproducibility and physiological relevance for basic research and real-world applications in drug discovery and development.