Publishing and preserving is an important part of scientific research, because it allows you to communicate the results of your research and to make your research reproducable. Consider the topics below before publishing your article, thesis, dissertation, book (chapter), conference paper or research data. 


For help on writing a paper, article or thesis see:

For more help please send a request to the Research support desk.

Your research output in UT Research Information

When you registered your research output in Pure Research Information your publications will be presented in the UT Research Information portal. Read more at how UT Research Information helps researchers.

Information about Doctoral Defence

The Doctorate Board is the right place for questions and regulations concerning your Doctoral Defence and is part of Twente Graduate School. The Board contains the deans of the five faculties and is presided by the Rector Magnificus and is supported by the secretariat. See Doctoral Board.

Copyright: what you need to consider before publishing

Whenever you publish, always pay attention to copyright rules.

The paragraph on Copyright offer information and practical instructions for protecting the copyright of your own work and for abiding by the copyright of other people’s work, for example by only reusing materials with Creative Commons licenses and by citing.

Publishing open access

When you publish open access, the peer-review process and often even the journals are the same as for traditional publishing. The difference lies in the number of people who have access to your publication.

The advantages of open-access publishing are enormous for researchers and research. And chances are that you can publish open access for free in top journals in your field, thanks to agreements between Dutch universities and publishers.

Visit the UT Open Access page and discover the advantages of Open Access (OA), how to assess the quality of OA journals, how to publish open access for free as a UT author, and how to easily open up your closed publications.

Would you like to request a presentation for your research group about your options for open-access publishing, based on your publications? Would you like personal guidance in publishing your work open access or do you simply have a question? Please contact the information specialist of your faculty or send your question to the Research Support Desk. They will gladly help you.


As a University of Twente researcher, teacher or student, you will inevitably have to deal with copyrights. You might be infringing copyrights of other people’s work or transferring copyrights of your own work without realizing it, so carefully read the information below.

What are copyrights?

Copyrights consist of moral rights and exploitation rights. Moral rights inseparably belong to the creator of a work, who should always get acknowledged when someone else uses the work, and who may object to modifications of the work that could damage his or her reputation. Exploitation rights are transferable, and concern the right to reuse a work and to communicate it to the public.

Copyrights do not apply to general theories, facts or ideas, but to expressions of the creator’s ideas, thoughts or feelings, with an original character of their own and a personal stamp of the creator. The expression must be perceivable: When an idea only exists in the creator’s head, so to speak, copyrights do not apply. They do apply to literary, scientific, and artistic works, such as texts (books, brochures, journals, web texts, etc.), music, drawings, paintings, sculptures, and photographs, but also apps and computer programs.

Am I the copyright holder of my own work?

When you create a work as a University of Twente student, you are the copyright holder as long as the work is an expression of your own ideas, thoughts or feelings, and as long as the work has an original character of its own and your personal stamp. When you created the work with others, you are joint copyright holders. And when the work is an expression of your teacher’s or a company’s ideas, you are not the copyright holder.

When you create a work as a University of Twente teacher or researcher that is in line with the work you were employed for, the University of Twente is the copyright holder of that work. There is one exception: UT authors are the copyright holder of their scientific publications.

The rules and regulations are clear when it concerns scientific publications, but more complex when it concerns teaching materials, inventions and possible patents, and software. Please contact the university’s legal advisors (Dutch page) in those cases.

How to abide by copyrights of other people's work

Abiding by moral rights means that whenever you use other people’s work, you always have to mention the source and the creator of the work you use by referencing. When you do not, you are plagiarizing.

Abiding by exploitation rights means that when you reuse copyrighted work to create your own work and/or communicate it to the public, in print or digitally, you have to ask the copyright holder permission and possibly pay royalties for your intended use.

Most databases of scientific publications allow you to request permission through RightsLink, a service of the Copyright Clearance Center, which provides licenses on behalf of publishers. Elsevier’s ScienceDirect database, for example, offers a link ‘Get rights and content’ next to the publication, and the IEEE database offers a link ‘Request permissions’. You can also request permission through the Copyright Clearance Center.

So it is important to make the correct reference in your own work, this can be found at the paragraph how to reference.

Exceptions: you are allowed to use someone else's work in these situations

  1. For your own, personal study and for research, you are allowed to make a (printed or digital) copy of copyrighted work, as long as you do not share it with others.
  2. When the work has a licence, for example a Creative Commons licence, then the copyright holder has already given permission in advance, provided you abide by the licence terms.Creative Commons (CC) offers six licences for online works. Works with a CC BY or a CC BY-SA licence (the two most permissive CC licences) are free cultural works: You are allowed to reuse and communicate such works, provided you cite the work, provide a link to the licence, and indicate if changes were made. If you remix, transform, or build upon material with a CC BY-SA licence, you must distribute your contributions under the same licence as the original.
  3. You are allowed to cite or link to copyrighted work, as long as you use it to explain your story and not to replace it, and as long as it only makes up a small portion of your own work. Abide by citing rules and only link to lawfully published materials.
  4. As a University of Twente teacher, you are allowed to use an excerpt of copyrighted materials for educational purposes, as long as it is part of the curriculum and used as an explanation as opposed to a replacement of your message (see Exceptions for teachers below).
  5. You are also allowed to use works of which the copyrights have expired. This is the case when the creator is known and deceased over 70 years ago. This means that you are allowed to reuse and communicate the original works of Shakespeare, Beethoven, Rembrandt, and so on. However, be careful with other people’s derivatives of such works, since their version may be subject to copyrights.Laws, regulations and decrees issued by the public power, as well as court rulings and administrative decisions, are also free of copyright.

In all other cases, you need to receive permission and possibly pay royalties to use someone else’s work.

How to protect copyrights of your own work

You can only protect copyrights when you are the copyright holder. Copyrights automatically exist from the moment a work is made, so you do not need to register your work or include a copyright symbol or statement.

Whenever you publish an article, a book (chapter) or a conference paper, you need to upload the author version of your publication to the university repository. The author version is the version after peer review, but without the final layout of the publisher. 

When uploading your work to a university repository, you do not need to worry about copyright or costs, because the University Library will perform a copyright check and uploading is free. However, offering Open Access (OA) to your work in university repository increases the visibility of your research, and you can only offer OA to your work when you hold the rights to do so. Publishers of subscription-based journals will often ask you to transfer the exploitation rights of your article. Have you done so, then you are probably not allowed to offer OA to your article in university repository. If you use a licence to publish instead, then you will still be allowed to offer OA to your article in a university repository.

When you publish OA, your work is given a licence. This is usually a Creative Commons (CC) licence that not only allows others to use your work on your terms, but also protects your own right to reuse and communicate your work in the future. All CC licences require referencing, so the source and the creator should always get acknowledged.

More information about copyrights

For more information about dealing with copyrights, please contact the Research support desk.

Disclaimer: Library, ICT Services & Archive (LISA) has made every attempt to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the information provided on this page. However, the information is provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. LISA does not accept any responsibility or liability for the accuracy, legality, or reliability of the information contained on this page.

Managing references

Your scientific work is an extension of the work of those who went before you: You build on other people’s work to create your own (paper, journal article, report, presentation, educational materials, etc.). But when you use someone else’s work without referencing, you are plagiarizing: You are giving the impression that their work is your own, which is forbidden. In the light of the Code of Conduct for Academic Practice, referencing is of utmost importance.


You can reference other people’s texts, images, tables, figures, videos, and so on, and both printed and digital works. References have to be recognizable as such and must be modest in size compared to the rest of your work. References must clarify or support your message, and may not be used to simply embellish your work.

Many referencing styles are available, for example the widely used APA style of the American Psychological Association and the Chicago Style. The referencing style that you adopt in your work depends on many factors, such as your discipline and institutional guidelines and regulations. Scientific journals usually mention their preferred or even mandatory referencing style in their author guidelines. 

Referencing occurs in the body of your work (in-text citations) and in your reference list.

In-text citations

In-text citations signal readers that you are referring to someone else’s work. Whether citations are presented in an author-date style or in a numeric style depends on the referencing style adopted in your work.

There are two types of in-text citations:

Quotes: quote is an exact copy of a part of someone else’s published work. A distinction is usually made between short quotes and long quotes. What constitutes a short or long quote depends on the referencing style adopted in your work. Place short quotes in quotation marks, and present long quotes as block quotes without quotation marks. The exact format of quotes depends on your chosen referencing style, but always include a citation (either surname author and date, or number corresponding to the full reference in your reference list) and the page number of the original text.

 Always try to weave quotes into the flow of your text. For example:

  • According to Keller (1987a), “the first step in design is to create a list of potential motivational strategies for each of the objectives. . . . The next step is to critically[emphasis added] review the potential strategies, and select the ones to be used” (p. 7).

Paraphrases: This type of in-text citation occurs when you paraphrase someone else’s ideas or summarize their work in your own words. Again, weave the citation into the flow of your text:

  • Horton (1997) advocated a similar view, suggesting that technical writers should take responsibility for making the reader notice, understand, and act on the information.
  • Several studies show that seniors, contradictory to commonly held beliefs, are willing to use technology (Czaja & Lee, 2007; Tsai, Rogers & Lee, 2012). 

For more detailed information about in-text referencing, sign up for our Scientific Information course.

Reference list

A reference list presents the details of other people’s publications used in your work. As a result, your reference list contains the details of all your in-text citations. Each reference in your list presents the name of the author(s), the publication date, the title, and publication information.

The format of your reference list depends on the referencing style adopted in your work. Many referencing styles are available, each with their own conventions. A frequently used referencing style is the APA style. An APA style reference to a journal article, for example, has the following format:

  • Terracciano, A., Abdel-Khalek, A. M., Ádám, N., Adamovová, L., Ahn, C., Ahn, H., . . . McCrae, R. R. (2005). National character does not reflect mean personality trait levels in 49 cultures. Science 310 , 96 - 100. doi:10.1126/science.1117199


A reference manager keeps a structured database of your references. Once your database is complete, you can let the manager create in-text citations and a reference list while adopting the referencing style of your choice. Frequently used reference managers are Mendeley, Endnote, Zotero and RefWorks. The University of Twente offers more practical information about Mendeley and EndNote.

Applying for an ISBN, DOI or ISSN 

Why do I need an ISBN?
Independent publications (books, theses and reports, etc.) must be officially registered with an ISBN (International Standard Book Number). With a unique ISBN, you increase the findability and the accessibility of your publication.

Should I get an ISBN?
If you plan to sell your thesis/book in bookstores, to libraries, or through online retailers like, you will need an ISBN.

Why do I need a DOI?
DOI is the abbreviation for Digital Object Identifier. It is a unique electronic address for an online document, e.g. a journal article. A document's DOI is a permanent identifier, and provides a more stable link than its URL. 

You can use a document's DOI in internet searches to find specific documents, however you may not be able to access the full text if it is outside the University's subscriptions.

Apply for an ISBN or DOI

An ISBN as well as a DOI are related to the University of Twente as a publisher. For applying an ISBN/DOI, please use this application form.

When should I apply for an ISSN?
The ISSN is assigned to a title of a serial publication and stays the same for all issues within this series. The ISSN simplifies searches of digital files and assists processing and exchanging information, particularly for publications with very similar titles. An assigned ISSN is for identification purposes only and does not confer any rights.
An ISSN application for a digital serial publication cannot be accepted until the first digital edition is available and is only applicable when a series is starting. 

Apply for an ISSN at the National Library of the Netherlands (Koninklijke Bibliotheek)  

Publishing your research data

To publish your data, simply deposit them in a Trusted Repository. When you upload your data to 4TU.ResearchData or DANS, a persistent identifier is assigned to your data, which guarantees sustainable access to your data. 

Once you have published your data, you can enhance your publication(s). This process is two-fold: You need to let your dataset refer to your article(s), and vice versa.

Letting your dataset refer to your article

Both 4TU.ResearchData and DANS offer the possibility to include a reference to your published article(s). This reference will be part of the metadata describing your data. If permitted, DANS will archive your publication(s) along with the accompanying dataset.

Letting your article refer to your data

For upcoming articles, please make sure that your data reference is included in the reference list of your article. We also recommend mentioning this reference in your cover letter, so reviewers can verify your research. For published articles, please contact the publisher and request a link to your data to be displayed online, along with the description of your article.

 More and more researchers enhance their scientific publications by linking them to the underlying data. Research has shown that enhanced publications are cited more often than regular publications1, so digitally archiving your data as citable output and enhancing your publication(s) increases your scientific impact.

Piwowar HA, Vision TJ. (2013) Data reuse and the open data citation advantage. PeerJ 1:e175

Publishing a journal

At UT there is an open journal service available. It uses Open Journal Systems, which is open source journal management and publishing software. 

Archiving your research output


For researchers and research organizations visibility of their scientific work is essential. Moreover, science and society demand accountability and transparency from scientists. Therefore, individual researchers, research units and the university need to present, archive and report about their research output. 

You are strongly asked to archive your output in the Research Information System.


In the light of open science and scientific integrity, sustainably archiving your static data and providing access is crucial. Data repositories let you digitally archive your (meta)data to keep your research verifiable, replicable and reusable for the long term. We recommend using a Trusted Repository: 4TU.ResearchData for technical and natural sciences data, and DANS for social sciences and humanities data. These Trusted Repositories received the Data Seal of Approval, which guarantees reliable, citable data that can be found, accessed (clear rights and licences) and used in the long term, even if the hardware and software become obsolete. 

4TU.ResearchData only accepts open data (everyone has unlimited access to your data). DANS prefers open data, but also offers restricted access (access is limited and can only be granted on request) and the possibility to place an embargo on your data.

The University of Twente is in favour of sustainably available and accessible research data, and supports its researchers financially by offering an Open Science Fund.

Archiving your research project

Managing your information is important during a research project. You as an employee have a responsibility during this process. It is your task to provide for conditions that may keep the documents that were made up or received by you in good order during a certain amount of time or even permanent.

The department Archive of LISA helps you managing your records during the life cycle of a document. It may ensure that your records of historical, fiscal, and legal value are identified and preserved, and that non-essential records are discarded in a timely manner according to Dutch guidelines and identified legislation.

For more information and an overview of our services see: Archiving services UT


For support contact the archive specialist/record manager of your faculty or send your question to the Research Support Desk.