https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e6/Flickr_-_Official_U.S._Navy_Imagery_-_Doctors_perform_surgery_together..jpg
MASTER THESIS

MHF1 - Testing a driver-, and environment adaptive HMI to support drivers in using partially automated cars: a driving simulator study.

Supervisors: prof.dr. Willem Verwey, Anika Boelhouwer MSc

35EC

Introduction. Previous studies have shown the potential human factor problems of automated cars (Cunningham & Regan, 2015; Martens & Van Den Beukel, 2013; Saffarian, de Winter, & Happee, 2012). These mainly tie into the fact that the driver will obtain a new role and will be handling more monitoring and supervising tasks rather than continuous physical driving tasks such as steering.

It is necessary to assist drivers in creating and maintaining an understanding of the automated systems in their car, and how to safely and efficiently use them. In previous studies, we have gathered requirements for an in-car tutor system that will help drivers better understand and safely use the automation in their car. Two prototypes of this in-car tutor system are currently designed based on these requirements. One of these prototypes focuses on driver adaptive feedback, while the other focuses on environment adaptive feedback. That means that the content and form of the feedback will depend on the current driver- or environment state for optimal support of the driver. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of adaptive tutor systems in partially automated cars, on the understanding and usage of the automation by drivers.

Your assignment: During your project, you will set up a driving simulator experiment to test (one of) these prototypes on: how well they support the driver in understanding the automation, and how they support safe and efficient use of the automation. You will be involved in the whole experiment process starting with the set-up of the experiment, helping in creating the simulator scenarios, executing the experiment with participants and ending with a first analysis of the data. A basic understanding of programming (in particular c++) is preferred to set up some scenarios.

If you are interested and would like to get further information on the project please contact Anika Boelhouwer (a.boelhouwer@utwente.nl) or Willem Verwey (w.b.verwey@utwente.nl)

MHF2 - Conversational agents

Supervisors: dr. Simone Borsci

25/35EC

Background

Conversational agents, such as chatbots and voice interfaces, can be used for multiple purposes e.g., support customer experience with services etc. These new tools are growing and more and more integrated into systems such as websites, social networks, cars. Smart and AI-based conversational agents are shaping the future of human-computer interaction however little is known about how to assess people reaction and satisfaction after the use of these systems.

Goals

Building upon previous research you will use the initial version of a new scale to assess satisfaction with chatbots. Your experimental work will focus on the evaluation of conversational agents to further streamline the reliability and validity of the scale.

Key references

  • Coperich, K., Cudney, E., & Nembhard, H. Continuous Improvement Study of Chatbot Technologies using a Human Factors Methodology.
  • Duijst, D. (2017). Can we Improve the User Experience of Chatbots with Personalisation? MSc Information Studie, Amsterdam.  
  • Følstad, A., & Brandtzæg, P. B. (2017). Chatbots and the new world of HCI. interactions, 24(4), 38-42.

Hill, J., Ford, W. R., & Farreras, I. G. (2015). Real conversations with artificial intelligence: A comparison between human–human online conversations and human–chatbot conversations. Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 245-250.

MHF3 - Can you trust technology?

Supervisors: dr. Simone Borsci

25/35EC

Background

Every day people use multiple technologies to perform complex tasks, such as buying products online, informing their decision making, or supporting their work activities. Several independent pieces of evidence in literature converge on the idea that multiple elements affected people expectations toward the use of technology, including individual attitudes, skills and capabilities and technology-related aspects, such as: product’s aesthetics and usability perceived before the use, fluency, brand and price etc.

You will focus on trust as the main enabler of the relationship between people and (smart) technology by attempting to answer questions such as: Why we do trust technology? How we discriminate between trustworthy and not trustworthy systems before the use?

Goals

By building on previous research your work will focus on the investigation of a cognitive mechanism to identify trustworthy systems before the use you will:

  • Develop hypotheses;
  • Refine stimuli and a build/adapt a digital test to explore trust before the use of technology;
  • Perform the experiment and recruit and involve participants in the test.

Key references

  • Yamagishi, T., Tanida, S., Mashima, R., Shimoma, E., & Kanazawa, S. (2003). You can judge a book by its cover: Evidence that cheaters may look different from cooperators. Evolution and Human Behavior24(4), 290-301.
  • Verplaetse, J., Vanneste, S., & Braeckman, J. (2007). You can judge a book by its cover: the sequel.: A kernel of truth in predictive cheating detection. Evolution and Human Behavior28(4), 260-271.
  • Borsci, S., Lawson, G., Salanitri, D., & Jha, B. (2016). When simulated environments make the difference: the effectiveness of different types of training of car service procedures. Virtual Reality, 20(2), 83-99. doi: 10.1007/s10055-016-0286-8.
MHF4 - Future of car Displays

Supervisors: dr. Simone Borsci

35EC

Background

This is a 35EC master project in collaboration with an important automotive brand to explore the future of the interaction with smart surfaces and displays of cars.

Smart displays and digital surfaces such as:

Are emerging in the automotive field as new and advanced solutions to improve the drivers' experience. Nevertheless how to design these tools and position these in the car to enable a safe and engaging interaction is still under research.

Goals

BMS Lab and CPE department will support and supervise you to answer the following questions:

  1. How should surfaces and displays look in future vehicles?
    1. To answer Q1 you will perform a review on smart surfaces and displays, define the key specifications of the future smart surfaces and displays, and select candidates for empirical tests.

  2. What is the best setup and location of such smart displays in cars?
    1. To answer Q2 you will develop a VR simulation setting to test the concept of smart surfaces and displays.

  3. How much time do people need to adjust to these new types of displays and smart surfaces?

To answer Q3 you will design and perform an experiment, to answer your individual expectations and to model people time to perform efficiently and effectively with these tools.

MHF5 - Responsible Design

Supervisors: dr. Simone Borsci,  dr. Arie Beukel

35EC

Background

This is a 35EC master project in collaboration with Industrial Design Engineering. PLEASE NOTE: the possibility of an internship is under discussion with a company.

Responsible design is the creation of interventions (be it policies, services, products) in responding to a holistic set of societal values, like justice, health, sustainability, inclusiveness, equality, sharing – while recognizing and anticipating the consequences of decisions and actions.  Despite its importance, the responsible design agenda remains only partially and unsystematically embedded in design education and practice.

Goals

Your work will aim at:

  • embed this in educational programmes of the Master of Human Factors and Industrial design. 
  • Support the development of a new responsible design service

To achieve the goals you will review and explore Responsible Design throughout literature and case studies, use human factors techniques to explore the journey of the new service and perform User Experience data analysis.

Key references

  • Silva, A. (2010). Handbook of Research on Trends in Product Design and Development: Technological and Organizational Perspectives: Technological and Organizational Perspectives: IGI Global.
  • Stegall, N. (2006). Designing for sustainability: A philosophy for ecologically intentional design. Design Issues, 22(2), 56-63
MHF6 - The vigilant brain

Supervisors: dr. Rob Van der Lubbe, dr. Martin Schmettow

35EC

In a recent study, we compared the relevance of different measures derived from the EEG to measure the vigilant state of individuals. With these measures, the major idea was to determine what analysis method is most effective in predicting lapses of attention, which in for example driving conditions may lead to serious accidents. We employed ERPs, Fourier analyses, and ERD/ERS. The employed research paradigm, however, may not have been the most effective. Goal of the MA-project is to develop an improved paradigm, which might simply imply that more non-target stimuli are presented, and which may enable to use the recently developed LPS method (Van der Lubbe & Utzerath, 2013).

MHF8 - Human Factors analysis of beating heart bypass surgery simulator training (with/without internship)

25/35EC

Supervisors University of Twente

Dr. Martin Schmettow, Assistant Professor Cognitive Psychology and Ergonomics (CPE), University of Twente, m.schmettow@utwente.nl  

Marleen Groenier, PhD, Educational Researcher Lab for Professional Learning, TechMed Centre, University of Twente, m.groenier@utwente.nl  

External supervisors

Frank R. Halfwerk, MD MSc, Technical Physician in Cardio-thoracic Surgery, Thorax Center Twente, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, f.halfwerk@mst.nl  

prof. Jan G. Grandjean, MD PhD, cardio-thoracic surgeon, Thorax Center Twente, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, j.grandjean@mst.nl

Background

Patients with coronary artery disease have a reduced blood flow to the heart. This may cause discomfort such as angina pectoris (chest pain) and can lead to a myocardial infarction or even death.

To recover blood flow, a Percutaneous Coronary Intervention or Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) can be performed. A CABG is performed in the Netherlands over 10.000 times annually. A majority of CABG is done with a heart lung machine that takes over the circulation of blood to organs when the heart is stopped. This comes with a risk of kidney or liver failure and even cerebral vascular accidents.

To overcome these complications, a CABG can be executed as a beating heart procedure. This Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass (OPCAB) procedure shows fewer of these complications, yet is difficult to learn for heart surgeons and therefore not available to all patients. This might lead to incomplete revascularization of the heart and thus suboptimal therapy for patients.

Research Problem

The only training facility at the moment is to learn OPCAB on patients. In this learning phase, more complications such as conversions to CABG and myocardial infarction are observed. As a result, the fraction OPCAB to CABG surgery is declining in the past years, despite its advantages for several patient groups.

In a collaboration between University of Twente and Medisch Spectum Twente hospital, an OBCAB simulator is under development.

Aim of this research

Currently, a first prototype is in development. The aim of the research is the evaluation of the prototype to driv3e the next iteration of development.

Methodology

A literature review and field research is necessary for questions 1 and 2. For 3 (and 4) interviews and focus group are desired. Experts on Human Factors and cardiac surgery within Medisch Spectrum Twente are available, as well as a national network of cardiac surgeons. Running an experiment to render the training process is another option.

Timeline

Students can start between October 2019 and March 2020. The exact timeline also depends on the progress of the project.

Internship

Students that wish to do a 10 ECTS internship are also encouraged to choose this topic. A 10-week internship can be done at the department of cardio-thoracic surgery, Thorax Centrum Twente, Medisch Spectrum Twente hospital in Enschede.

Students will experience daily routine in cardio-thoracic surgery such as multidisciplinary meetings (and for those who want even the operating theatre), see the influence of human factors on selection and outcome of surgery and describe these influences in a practical internship project. The internship will be followed by a 25 ECTS Master’s thesis.

Aim of this research

Currently, a first prototype is in development. The aim of the research is the evaluation of the prototype to driv3e the next iteration of development.

Methodology

A literature review and field research is necessary for questions 1 and 2. For 3 (and 4) interviews and focus group are desired. Experts on Human Factors and cardiac surgery within Medisch Spectrum Twente are available, as well as a national network of cardiac surgeons. Running an experiment to render the training process is another option.

Timeline

Students can start between October 2019 and March 2020. The exact timeline also depends on the progress of the project.

Internship

Students that wish to do a 10 ECTS internship are also encouraged to choose this topic. A 10-week internship can be done at the department of cardio-thoracic surgery, Thorax Centrum Twente, Medisch Spectrum Twente hospital in Enschede.

Students will experience daily routine in cardio-thoracic surgery such as multidisciplinary meetings (and for those who want even the operating theatre), see the influence of human factors on selection and outcome of surgery and describe these influences in a practical internship project. The internship will be followed by a 25 ECTS Master’s thesis.

MHF9 - Simulator training for minimally invasive surgery

Supervisors: dr. Martin Schmettow

25/35EC

Minimal invasive surgery (MIS, keyhole surgery) is one of the most important developments in surgery the recent past. While MIS usually is good for patients, it is difficult to master for the surgeon. Presently, MIS training follows the apprenticeship model, where trainees watch a hundred or so procedures, before putting their own hands on a patient. With the emerge of virtual reality training simulators this is soon going to change. This new technology is promising as it provides safe and highly repeatable training opportunities, as well as assessment of a person’s capabilities. At the same time, modern surgery simulators are perfect as research tools as they produce a number of performance metrics in vitro. In this line of research, we are using parametric learning curves to model the progress in performance over amount of training.

A recent experiment has produced results that can lead to more efficient training: After an initial training phase, participants were asked to improve their speed of execution (at the possible expense of accuracy and mental demand). These speed episodes lead to remarkable improvements in overall performance.

This thesis project aims at verifying whether the method of speed episodes is effective in the long term. You will conduct an experiment with speed episodes and test the effect on retention. Based on the results you will draw conclusions on designing simulator based trainings and simulator-based assessment. During your project you will work as a team of two students in close collaboration with Marleen Groenier from Technical Medicine.

Figuur 1 Results of an experiment with three learning phases: 1. free speed 2. pressure to speed 3. free speed. Results indicate that after speed pressure, accuracy and mental demand return to previous levels, whereas time-on-task (ToT) is much improved.

Figuur 1 Results of an experiment with three learning phases: 1. free speed 2. pressure to speed 3. free speed. Results indicate that after speed pressure, accuracy and mental demand return to previous levels, whereas time-on-task (ToT) is much improved.

MHF10 - Efficient mind reading with the semantic priming Stroop task

Supervisors: dr. Martin Schmettow

25/35EC

Background

Mind reading refers to getting a grasp on what someone is currently thinking of, without asking the person directly. Psychologists are commonly believed (or feared) of having some mind reading capabilities.

In experimental Psychology, the key to mind reading is to use so-called implicit techniques (Robinson & Neighbors, 2005). The variety of implicit methods falls into two classes. In free association tasks (e.g., Schmettow & Keil, 2013), the response is free form (such as telling a brief story after viewing a picture), which is then interpreted by the researcher using some detailed scoring rules. In experimental tasks, direction of thought is usually inferred from differences in response times.

A rather novel paradigm to mind reading is a variant of the well-known Stroop task. The semantic priming Stroop task promises to assesses the strength of association between a previously administered prime and a word. For example, participants first view a picture, followed by a word that is written in color. As in the classic Stroop task, the participant has to respond to the color as quick as possible. When the participant has a strong association between picture and word, this leads to a distraction from the color naming task and can be measured as a delay in response time. By using words out of several categories, one can determine the broad direction of thought, the participant experienced.

To give an example: Supposed, you want to find out whether someone knows the fairytale of “Red Riding Hood”. You would prepare a set of pictures that cover the themes of the fairytale, for example showing an old lady, a wolf or a basket with food. Another set of pictures is not associated to the fairytale, serving as a control condition. In the same way two sets of target words are created. During the experiment picture-word pairs are presented in two conditions: either both are associated through the fairytale (e.g., picture of a wolf, followed by the word grandma), or they are completely unassociated (e.g., picture of car followed by grandma). When the response time for associated pairs are delayed, you would conclude that the person knows the fairytale.

The Stroop semantic priming task has been used twice to assess attitudes towards computers (Schmettow, Noordzij, & Mundt, 2013; Sparrow, Liu, & Wegner, 2011).

Research question

The classic Stroop task is a well-established experimental paradigm in cognitive psychology and the Stroop effect has been replicated dozens, if not hundreds, of time. In contrast, the semantic priming variant has only been used twice to our knowledge, making it susceptible. In this thesis project, the promises are assessed by a replication of Sparrow et al., 2011?

Activities

In your thesis project you will:

  1. Do a literature study covering experimental priming paradigms and the Stroop task
  2. Recreate the original experiment as close as possible
  3. Run the experiment to test your hypothesis
  4. Conclude on whether the semantic priming Stroop task works and how it can be used in Human Factors research

References

Robinson, M. D., & Neighbors, C. (2005). Catching the mind in action: Implicit methods in personality research and assessment. In M. Eid & E. Diener (Eds.), Handbook of multimethod measurement in psychology (Vol. 7, pp. 115–125). Washington, DC, US: APA American Psychological Association.

Schmettow, M., & Keil, J. (2013). Development of an Implicit Picture Story Exercise Measuring Personal Motives for the Interaction with Technical Products. University of Twente.

Schmettow, M., Noordzij, M. L., & Mundt, M. (2013). An implicit test of UX: Individuals Differ in What They Associate with Computers. In CHI ’13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems on - CHI EA ’13 (pp. 2039–2048). New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. http://doi.org/10.1145/2468356.2468722

Sparrow, B., Liu, J., & Wegner, D. M. (2011). Google effects on memory: cognitive consequences of having information at our fingertips. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6043), 776–8. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.1207745

MASTER THESIS AND INTERNSHIP


MHF11 - Intership | Experimental research into the effects of personalized learning

Supervisor (Internal, UT): prof.dr. Jan Maarten Schraagen; Supervisor (External, TNO): dr. Karel van den Bosch

10EC Internship + 25EC Thesis Project

For full description follow this link: https://lnkd.in/eTMYJmr

Deadline for application: 20 September 2019

MHF12 - Evaluating interaction concepts in mixed reality

Supervisor (Internal, UT): prof.dr. Jan Maarten Schraagen; Supervisor (External, TNO): Tom Hueting

Current advancements in the field of immersive technologies enable new ways for researchers to evaluate interaction concepts. Ongoing research into optimal collaboration concepts for various domains utilises these emerging technologies to generate and evaluate concepts more quickly.

One of the challenges of this research is to empirically validate the benefits of one interaction concept over the other. For instance, how do changes in the work environment (i.e. room layout) or work processes (i.e. introduction of Immersive Technologies) influence the way the sociotechnical system works? Think of how the speed of work processes might change, how operators may maintain a better level of SA, or how the frequency and content of communication may change.
Tools exist for these comparisons, such as Social Network Analysis (Stanton, 2014), however the field of modelling sociotechnical systems is continuously in development.

For your master thesis you will work with researchers at TNO in Soesterberg in exploring and contributing to these developments. You will do this by familiarising yourself with the current state-of-the art regarding sociotechnical system modelling techniques. Furthermore, you will help determine how these modelling techniques can be applied to empirically validate the benefits of new interaction concepts. See Stanton & Robert, (2019) for an example study.
You will identify knowledge gaps, and furthermore we offer the possibility to work on an experiment where you can test/evaluate an aspect of sociotechnical systems modelling by evaluating two or more interaction concepts.

Preferred start date is in February, it is also possible (and preferred) to combine this with your master internship starting in November/December, for a combined total of 35 EC.

TNO offers an exciting state of the art research environment, where you will be part of a larger team working on control room design. You will also be part of a larger group of interns working at different departments at the same location in Soesterberg. TNO offers a monthly monetary compensation.

Due to the nature of the research position, only students with the Dutch nationality can apply.

For more information about the department at TNO where you will be working, see:

https://www.tno.nl/en/focus-areas/defence-safety-security/expertise-groups/human-behaviour-and-organisational-innovation/

For more information, please contact:

UT Supervisor: Prof. dr. J.M.C. (Jan Maarten) Schraagen, j.m.c.schraagen@utwente.nl

Supervisor at TNO: Tom Hueting, tom.hueting@tno.nl

References

Stanton, N. A. (2014). Representing distributed cognition in complex systems: How a submarine returns to periscope depth. Ergonomics, 57(3), 403–418. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2013.772244

Stanton, N. A., & Robert, A. P. J. (2019). Better together? Investigating new control room configurations and reduced crew size in submarine command and control. Ergonomics, 73, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2019.1654137

Deadline for application: 20 September 2019. Please contact the supervisors with your attached CV.