PhD's

dr. ir. Richard Loendersloot

ctw/pt

PhD Project:

Resin Transfer Moulding – Development of predictive models for the permeability of fibre reinforcements


Start / End:

1st of September 2001 to 13th of April 2006


Partners:

The project was part of the collaborative research project between the Dutch Aerospace Laboratories (Nederlands Lucht en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium, NLR) and the University of Twente. This project, referred to as the UT-NLR-RTM project, started in May 2001.


Part of the work is performed in the framework of the European project FALCOM (2001 – 2005) and in the framework of a Marie Curie Fellowship project at the department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (October 2002 – June 2003).


Resin Transfer Moulding is a closed mould production technology for (thermoset based) fibre reinforced composites. The dry fibre reinforcement that is placed inside the mould is near-net shaped and either consists of a stack of woven fabrics or Non-Crimp Fabrics, or of a braided preform. The resin is injected typically at a pressure ranging from 1 – 10 bars, depending on the size and complexity of the product. The permeability is a measure of the resistance that the fluid experiences when flowing through the preform.

The permeability appears to exhibit a variation due to geometrical variations in the internal structure of the fabric. The work here aims to identify the source of this variation and its effect on the permeability for Non-Crimp Fabrics. The internal geometry is analysed and an appropriate unit cell was defined: a wedge shaped distortion with length l and width b, as depicted in figure 1. The variation of these dimensions affects the permeability of the fabric.

It was shown that analysing the variation of the permeability on the level of unit cells is not sufficient for a proper estimation of the variation of the macroscopic permeability. Hence, a flow model consisting of a network of unit cells is developed, as depicted in figure 2. The variation of the macroscopic permeability is not only caused by the variation of the permeability on the level of the unit cells, but is also strongly affected by the spatial distribution of the permeability of the unit cells. However, the predicted permeability can only partly explain the variations of the permeability measured. Permeability measurements were performed and it was revealed that experimentally determined permeability values of a single type of reinforcement, measured with different set-ups and at different institutes, exhibit a large amount of scatter. This is primarily caused by the absence of a standardised measuring method.

figure 1: unit cell for NCF

  • W. Ruijter, A numerical approach to the permeability of non-crimp fabrics, master thesis report, Twente University, 2005. Numerical analysis of the fluid flow in a Non-Crimp Fabric unit cell, using the multigrid approach.
  • N. Struijk and G.J. te Bokkel, Implementatie van Vacuüminjectie , bachelor thesis report, Universiteit Twente/Chr. Hogeschool Windesheim, 2003. Experiments on the vacuum injection process.
  • M.M.J. Tibben, 1-D Permeabiliteitsmeting, bachelor thesis report, Universiteit Twente/Saxion Hogeschool, 2003. Realisation and testing of a prototype measuring device with novel flow sensor system for the permeability in the out-of-plane direction of a textile reinforcement.
  • J. Elmarasy, Kz-Permeabiliteitsmeting, bachelor thesis report, Universiteit Twente/Saxion Hogeschool, 2004. Further implementation and testing of the measuring device for permeability in the out-of-plane direction of a textile reinforcement.
  • S.P. Haanappel and I.G.H.M. van der Sligte, Ontwerp en Implementatie van een RTM Proefopstelling en Microscopy Beeldverwerking, bachelor thesis report, Universiteit Twente/Chr. Hogeschool Windesheim, 2004. Design and implementation of a Resin Transfer Moulding test set-up to perform permeability measurements and to make epoxy based composite plates for (microscopic) analysis.
  • I.H. Jacobs, Resin Transfer Molding Produceren van composietplaten - Vervolgstudie RTM-proefopstelling, bachelor thesis report, Universiteit Twente/Saxion Hogeschool, 2005. Further implementation of the RTM test set-up to develop a protocol to make expoy based composite plates with sufficiently high quality to be used as specimens for further testing.
  • R. Loendersloot, S.V. Lomov, R. Akkerman and I. Verpoest, Carbon Composite based on Multiaxial Multiply Stitched Preforms. Part V: Geometry of Sheared Biaxial FabricsComposites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol.37, 2006, p.103-113.
  • S.V. Lomov, M. Barburski, Tz. Stoilova, I. Verpoest, R. Akkerman, R. Loendersloot and R.H.W. ten Thije, Carbon Composites Based on Multiaxial Multiply Stitched Preforms. Part {III}: Biaxial Tension, Picture Frame and Compression Tests of the PreformsComposites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol.36, 2005, p. 1188-1206.
  • R. Loendersloot and R. Akkerman, A Least Square Approximation of Annular FlowProceedings of FPCM-6, Auckland, 2002, p. 53-62.
  • R. Loendersloot, S.V. Lomov, R. Akkerman and I. Verpoest, Architecture and Permeability of Sheared Carbon Fibre Non-Crimp FabricsProceedings of SAMPE Europe, Paris, 2003, p. 141-148.
  • R. Loendersloot, R.H.W. ten Thije, S.V. Lomov, R. Akkerman and I. Verpoest, Geometry, Compressibility and Porosity of Sheared Non-Crimp Fabrics, Proceedings of SiComp Conference, Piteå, 2003, CD-edition.
  • R. Loendersloot, R.H.W. ten Thije, R. Akkerman and S.V. Lomov, Permeability Prediction of Non-Crimp Fabrics Based on a Geometric ModelProceedings of ECCM-11 Conference, Rhodos, Greece, 2004, CD-edition.
  • R. Loendersloot, R. Akkerman and S.V. Lomov, A Permeability Prediction for (Un)Sheared Non-Crimp FabricsProceedings of FPCM-7 Conference, Newark Delaware, 2004, p. 367-372.
  • R. Loendersloot and R. Akkerman, A permeability prediction for Non-Crimp Fabrics, Accepted for ESAFORM-9, 2006.
  • R. Loendersloot and R. Akkerman, A permeability prediction for Non-Crimp Fabrics, Accepted for FPCM-8, 2006.
  • E.C. v.d. Ven, R. Loendersloot and R. Akkerman, Experimental Investigation of the Compressibility and Permeability of Fabric Reinforcements, Accepted for FPCM-8, 2006.
  • R. Loendersloot, The structural-permeability relation of textile reinforcementPhD thesis University of Twente, 2006, ISBN 90‑365‑2337‑0.

After a post-doc period at the University of Twente, Richard Loendersloot joined Reden in the Netherlands (www.reden.nl)

Since May 2008 Richard Loendersloot returned to the University of Twente as a part-time lecturer at the group of Applied Mechanics. He changed to a full-time position in September 2009. His current research and education activities are found on his current webpage.