Job aids testing and assessment

 

oral or written examination: knowledge test

oral or written examination: diagnostic problem-solving test

assignment/

practical assignment

project

graduation project/

thesis

What

(type of learning objective)

Level of professional knowledge.

The questions are primarily focused on knowledge, understanding and application.

Problem-solving ability. The questions are primarily focused on application, analysis and synthesis.

Problem-solving ability. The questions are primarily focused on application, analysis and synthesis but also on process skills.

Project-oriented working and problem-solving ability. The criteria are focused on application, analysis and synthesis, and also on process, end product, professional skills and attitude.

Entire competence profile: integration of vocational, research and professional competencies.

How

Knowledge tests can be divided into three variants:

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a test with closed-ended questions

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a test with open-ended questions

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a test with a combination of open-ended and closed-ended questions

On the basis of a problem description which is as authentic as possible, students are asked for assessments/solutions and arguments to support their conclusions/choices.

On the basis of a problem description which is as authentic as possible, students (either individually or in a group) are asked for assessments/solutions and arguments to support their conclusions/choices.

A fictitious or authentic question or assignment from a company, organization or institution to be answered/solved by an individual student or a group of students. Reflection and feedback are essential for maximizing the learning effect.

A complex issue from professional practice which has to be independently investigated and/or designed by the student.

Reflection and feedback are essential for maximizing the learning effect.

Benefits

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can be administered on a large scale

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reliability of measurements is high for closed-ended questions

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validity of measurements is high for open-ended questions

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scoring system can be compiled in advance

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suitable for measuring the integration of knowledge, skills and attitude

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case study can elicit learning behaviour

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scoring system can be compiled in advance

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suitable for measuring the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes

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students become aware of quality and quantity criteria

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suitable for measuring the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes

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close relationship with professional practice, which appeals to many students

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students become aware of quality and quantity criteria

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students are challenged to function independently at the level of a novice professional

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close relationship with professional practice

Disadvantages

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sound organization is essential for administering the test

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formulating good test questions is not easy, it requires expertise on the part of the developer

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validity of measurements is low for closed-ended questions

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reliability of measurements is low for open-ended questions

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selecting and writing good case studies is time-consuming and expensive

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the case studies determine everything

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too extensive a case study leads to the risk of “over-questioning” or questions which are not very selective

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too limited a case study leads to the risk of oversimplified problem solutions

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objectivity (reliability) can be difficult as it is dependent on the transparency of the assessment criteria, the attitude of examiners, and the way in which individual performance is determined within the context of group work

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there is a risk that a strong focus on the process and the product will be at the expense of reasoning (application, analysis, understanding)

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objectivity (reliability) can be difficult as it is dependent on the transparency of the assessment criteria, the attitude of examiners, and the way in which individual performance is determined within the context of group work

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there is a risk that a strong focus on the process and the product will be at the expense of reasoning (application, analysis, understanding)

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objectivity is sometimes difficult, much is determined in advance by the effective formulation of assignments and assessment criteria

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there is a risk that a strong focus on the process and the product will be at the expense of reasoning (application of analysis of knowledge, skills and understanding)

>> return to “the choice of test format

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