Reviews in video-based learning


H. van der Meij


According to Bandura (1986) people can learn from studying a model of performance if they engage in the processes of attention, retention, production and motivation. Attention refers to the processes by which some information is enhanced while other information is inhibited. Retention involves transforming incoming information into symbolic codes that are stored in long-term memory. Typically this involves the processes of organizing the incoming information and integrating that information with existing prior knowledge. Production revolves around retrieval of the stored procedure for guiding the task execution. Motivation concerns the will and desire to become task-engaged.

This project investigates whether the process of retention benefits from the presence of a review (a short recap of a procedure). You design an experiment with two conditions. The control condition presents only the task demonstration. The experimental condition round off the video with a review. If you like, you can reuse a considerable portion of existing instructional materials (e.g., website, videos, practice files) and research instruments (e.g., retention tests, transfer tests) from previous studies. But you may also want to design your own demonstration videos.

Earlier studies on the effectiveness of reviews have yielded mixed effects. Some studies found clear benefits for learning and motivation (e.g., van der Meij, & van der Meij, 2016; submitted), while others did not reveal (significant) advantages (van der Meij, van der Meij, Voerman, & Duipmans, submitted). Factors that probably have played a role in the mixed findings are: level of prior knowledge, user control during training, and the possibility for immediate practice.


First, you investigate the literature on retention processes. Next, you decide about the set-up of the conditions of an experiment that investigates this effect for video instructions.


Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and actions: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Van der Meij, H., van der Meij, J., Voerman, T., & Duipmans, E. (6 August 2015, 27 April 2016). The design and effectiveness of video tutorials using demonstrations for software training. Educational Technology Research & Design.

Van der Meij, H., & Van der Meij, J. (14 April 2016). Demonstration-Based Training (DBT) for the design of a video tutorial for software instructions. Instructional Science.

Van der Meij, H., & Van der Meij, J. (2016). The effects of reviews in video tutorials. Journal of Computer-Assisted-Learning.