Required readings


There apparently have been some changes in these addresses. For


For Bruce Johnstone,

Philip G. Altbach, “Private Higher Education: Themes and Variations in Comparative Perspective” in P. G. Altbach, ed., Private Prometheus: Private Higher Education and Development in the 21st Century (Boston College, 1999), 1-16.

Roger L. Geiger, “Privateness in Higher Education,” Private Sectors in Higher Education (Ann Arbor, University of Michigan press, 1986), 229-56.

Roger L. Geiger, “The Publicness of Private Higher Education,” Keynote Address, CHER Conference, (September, 2004).

D. Bruce Johnstone, “The Economics and Politics of Cost Sharing in Higher Education: Comparative Perspectives,” Economics of Education Review, 23, 4 (August, 2004), 403-410; or

Kevin Kinser and Daniel Levy, “The For-Profit Sector: U.S. Patterns and International Echoes in Higher Education,” PROPHE Working Paper #5 (Feb. 2005).

Daniel C. Levy, “Unanticipated Development: Perspectives on Private Higher Education’s Emerging Roles,” PROPHE Working Paper #1 (2002)

Voldemar Tomusk, “The War of Institutions, Episode I: the Rise of Private Higher Education in Eastern Europe,” Higher Education Policy 16 (2003): 213-238.


OECD Reviews of National Policies for Education Latvia , pp. 139-163

OECD Reviews of National Policies for Education Lithuania, pp. 201-265

OECD Reviews of National Policies for Education Estonia, pp. 159-197

Volli Kalm. Estonia’s way in reforming higher education – from soviet-style system into the Bologna process.

Van der Wende

Douglass, J.A. (2005). All Globalization is local: countervailing forces and the influence of higher education markets. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.1.05. University of California, Berkeley.

Garrett, R. & L. Verbik (2005). Transnational higher education: major markets and emerging trends. In: Mapping borderless higher education: policy, markets and competition. The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.

OECD (2004). Internationalisation and trade in higher education – Opportunities and Challenges. Chapter 1 and 6.

Scott, P. (2003). Changing Players in a Knowledge Society. In: G. Bretton & M. Lambert (eds.) Universities and Globalisation; Private linkages, Public Trust. Paris: UNESCO. Pp. 211-222

Vught, van F. A, M.C. van der Wende & D.F. Westerheijden (2002). Globalisation and Internationalisation. Policy Agendas Compared. In: Higher Education in a Globalizing World. International Trends and Mutual Observations. J. Enders & O. Fulton (eds.) Dordrecht: Kluwer. Pp. 103-121.

Wende, M.C. van der (2003). Globalisation and Access to Higher Education. In: Journal for Studies in International Education. Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 193-206.

Van Vught

Clark, B (1998). Creating Entrepreneurial Universities, Organizational Pathways of Transformation, Pergamon, Oxford, Chapters: 1 and 7

Nowotny, H., P. Scott & M. Gibbons (2001). Re-thinking Science, Knowledge and the Public in an Age of Uncertainty, Policy Press, Cambridge, Chapters: 1, 5 and 6

Nyborn, Th. (2003). The Humboldt Legacy; Reflections on the Past, Present and Future of the European University, Higher Education Policy 16 (2), pp. 141-160.

Weber, L.E. & J.J. Duderstadt (2004). Reinventing the Research University?, Economica, Paris, Chapters: 2,3 and 7