Programme and lecturers
Roger Geiger (College of Education, Pennsylvania State University)
Private and Public Sectors in Higher Education: Changing Structures and Policies and the Dynamics of Privatization
The traditional structural relationships between private and public sectors will be explored as a foundation for analyzing recent developments. These include the appearance of private sectors in formerly communist countries and the growth of for-profit private higher education. Particular attention will be given to two macro-trends: 1) the privatization of public sectors, and 2) the increasing claims on public resources of private institutions. Both have been facilitated by distinct governmental policies. Privatization has generally meant greater reliance on student payments, euphemistically referred to as “cost sharing.” Sometimes this has been accompanied by a withdrawal of government support, but almost always it includes some form of student financial assistance. Government policies have also forced universities to become more entrepreneurial in generating additional forms of income, particularly through cooperative endeavors with private industry. Increased private payment for higher education, especially when government subsidies are included, tends to allow private institutions to compete more effectively with public ones. Private institutions are often dependent upon public universities in other ways. Hence, public policies are heavily implicated in the current wave of privatization and raise fundamental questions of who should pay the costs of higher education? How? And, when?
Jaak Aaviksoo, Rector of the University of Tartu
The lecture presents an analysis of the reform process of the higher education systems in three Baltic States in the years 1990-2005. It is organized around three topics: the changing status of the state/public institutions, the emergence and transformations of the private institutions and the concept of “higher education market”. 4 case studies are given: Tartu University (public, Estonia), Estonian Business School (private for-profit, Estonia), Vilnius University (public, Lithuania), The Baltic Russian Institute (private, Latvia), Concordia International University (private, bankrupt, Estonia). A qualitative evaluation of the trends is given and students are asked to presage the future development of the higher education systems as well as to come up with appropriate policy advice for national governments.
Marijk van der Wende, Professor at CHEPS, University of Twente
The increasing demand for access to higher education is a worldwide phenomenon. The number of tertiary students worldwide doubled in size (from 40 million in 1975 to more than 80 million in 1995) and is expected to grow more (150 million by 2025). In addition there is an increasing need for more diversified and flexible types of higher education, including lifelong learning, corporate training, etc. Many countries are unable to meet this growing and diversifying demand for higher education. Consequently, foreign providers move across borders by offering offshore or virtual programmes, by setting up branch campuses, or by attracting foreign students to their home campuses. These various types of transnational education introduce new forms of privatization in higher education. Traditional (national) regulatory frameworks are challenged by these developments. At the same time, new frameworks are evolving as part of the Global Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS).
Frans van Vught, Former President of the University of Twente
There is a considerable and growing “knowledge gap” between the EU and the USA in terms of levels of investment in and performance of the knowledge economy. The differences can be traced mainly to the near absent private contribution to education in the EU and the considerably higher expenditures in R&D by business and industry in the USA. Whereas in Europe higher education and research are seen as activities to be financed from public resources, in the USA there are also significant private contributions. Moreover, there is a closer relationship between knowledge production and economic growth. The aim to close this gap (which is key to the so-called “Lisbon Strategy”) presents new challenges that reach to the heart of the classical European academic culture. It requires European universities to transform their traditional – Humboldtian – academic culture to a culture of external orientation and cooperation (esp. with business and industry) directed at economic productivity. The “entrepreneurial university” is a clear representative of this model.
Clearly, the summer school covers a great deal of trends and developments in higher education. The last day will be used to integrate the different perspectives presented in the lectures.